Abengoa Solar

Abengoa Solar
About

History of Abengoa Solar
Origins

Abengoa began its involvement in the development of solar technologies in 1984 with the construction of the Solar Almeria Platform in Spain. The company supplied heliostats and glass facets and worked on the construction of the Cesa Tower. Later, in 1987, Abengoa supplied the facets for the heliostat field of the Weizmann Institute in Israel.
This initial work was undertaken by the Abengoa company, Inabensa as part of its construction department.
In the 1990’s, a new department was created devoted to solar R&D projects. In 1983, Abengoa Solar IST (then Industrial Solar Technology) was founded by Ken May with the purpose of developing trough technology that was economically feasible for commercial and industrial applications.
The 90s: Concetrated Solar Power and Photovoltaic R&D Projects

In 1993, Abengoa built Toledo PV, a 1MW turn-key photovoltaic plant, that is owned by Union Fenosa, Endesa and RWE. The project was built with a subsidy from the European Union.
In 1994, several tower R&D projects were initiated. These projects were partially subsidized by the European Union under Framework Programs IV, V and V. R&D focused on different types of receivers. One of the projects, Solgas, focused on steam generation while the other, Colon Star, focused on electricity generation. Between 1995 and 2000, several R&D projects involving troughs began under by the EU Framework Program s IV and V. The following are highlights of the late 90’s R&D projects.

* The Theseus Project: The Theseus Project studied the feasibility of a parabolic trough plant in Greece.

* Eurotrough: Abengoa Solar was one of the leaders in developing the Eurotrough. The purpose of this project was to develop a parabolic trough with improved optical efficiency, and better manufacturing and assembly processes compared to existing designs.

* DISS: A research project investigating the direct generation of steam in the trough receiver. The research goal was a major technical advance leading to a 30% increase in the efficiency of parabolic trough electricity generation.

In the 1990’s Abengoa Solar also collaborated on dish-Stirling projects involving the production of the Eurodish and Envirodish.

Abengoa Solar worked on concentrated photovoltaic projects. The outcome was the low-concentration dishes (Sevilla PV) now installed at the Sanlucar Solar Platform.

During this time, Abengoa Solar IST worked with some of the world’s best labs and institutions to improve and install solar trough systems for industrial and commercial applications.

2004 to Present: Transition from R&D to Commercial Plant Construction

Based on the economic and technical foundation provided by investments in R&D, Abengoa Solar has transitioned into a pioneer in the construction of commercial CSP and PV plants.

In 2007, Abengoa Solar inaugurated the world’s first commercial solar tower plant, the 11 MW, PS10, and the world’s largest low-concentration PV plant ( Sevilla PV, 1.2 MW). These two plants are part of the Sanlucar Platform, which when complete in 2013 will have a total capacity of 300 MW. Such output can supply the needs of 18,000 households in Seville, while eliminating 600,000 tons of CO2 per year. Besides the Sanlucar Platform, Abengoa Solar is building additional plants in Spain, the USA, Algeria and Morocco.

Abengoa Solar New Technologies (NT) is the R&D company of Abengoa Solar in Spain. Abengoa Solar NT collaborates with institutions such as NREL, Ciemat and Fraunhofer, as well as research universities to develop CSP and PV technology. In addition, Abengoa Solar NT performs internally-funded R&D to develop new proprietary knowledge aimed at improving performance and reducing the cost of solar technology.

Technology

Operating Principle

Photovoltaic (PV) cells use semiconductors to produce electricity. The cell absorbs solar radiation, which excites the electrons inside the cell. A semiconductor must have at least two electric fields. When an electron excited by solar energy leaves its electric field, it seeks to return to its original electric field. In order to do so, it must pass through an external circuit, producing electricity. This is referred to as the photovoltaic effect.

PV technology

The following are the primary components of PV technology.

  • Optics: Different optical elements, such as mirrors and Fresnel lenses, are used to concentrate solar radiation onto a point where a PV cell is located.
  • Photovoltaic Cell: The photovoltaic cell is the semiconductor used to produce the photovoltaic effect.
  • Inverter: Since the photovoltaic effect produces direct current (DC), an inverter must be used to change it to alternating current (AC).

Types of Photovoltaic Cells

There are two predominate PV systems on the market. Each has their own pros and cons regarding application, efficiency, and cost.

1 Crystallized Silicon (~200 µm)

A double layer antireflection coating is used to reduce reflection losses on the front surface of crystalline silicon wafers. The wafers are about 400 µm thick to ensure near-complete absorption of all photons having energy greater than the band gap. At the bottom of the wafer, a SiO2 layer is inserted between the wafer and the aluminum backing to achieve reflectance back toward the cell.

  • Single-Crystalline Si
    The semiconductors of most PV cells are made from single-crystalline Si. This requires highly purified silicon to be crystallized into ingots. The ingots are then sliced into thin wafers to make an individual PV cell.
  • Polycrystalline Si
    Polycrystalline Si cells are produced in a way very similar to single-crystalline cells. The primary difference is that silicon of less purity is used for polycrystalline cells. The result is reduced cost and increased ease of production, but a loss of efficiency.
  • Ribbon Si
    Ribbon type PV cells are produced in a similar fashion to single- and polycrystalline silicon cells. The primary difference is that a ribbon is grown from molten silicon instead of an ingot. These cells often have a prismatic rainbow appearance due to their antireflective coating.

Ribbon Si

Thin film (~5 µm):

Thin film semiconductor technology may not be as efficient as traditional semiconductor technology, but its light weight and low cost make it an ideal solution for certain applications.

Amorphous Si

  • Amorphous Si
    Unlike crystalline semiconductors which have a band gap of 1.1 eV, by manipulating the alloy of amorphous silicon semiconductors the band gap energy can be tuned between 1.1 eV and 1.75 eV. Additionally, because they have a much greater absorbance than crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon semiconductors can be much thinner (less than 1 µm). Although amorphous Si cells can be manufactured at low temperatures (200-500 C) and at low costs, a major drawback is their light-induced degradation.

Amorphous Si

3 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Solar Cells

  • 3 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Solar Cells (CIS Cu In Se2)(CIGS Cu(InGa)Se2)
    Due to its relatively high efficiency and low material cost, this technology has emerged as one of the most promising thin films. By adjusting the ratio of In to Ga in CIGS cells, the band gap can be tuned between 1.02 eV and 1.68 eV. The absorption elements of CIGS cells are incredibly high, allowing more than 99% of incoming radiation to be absorbed within the first µm of material. Although this technology has a relatively low material cost, the complicated and capital-intensive manufacturing methods remain as significant drawbacks.

CIGS Solar Cell

Cadmium Telluride

  • Cadmium Telluride (TeCd)
    Cadmium Telluride is another thin film technology that has been available longer and undergone more research than any other thin film technology.
    Although there are diverse manufacturing techniques that can be used to produce the films, many of which are promising for large scale production, the cost and potential health concerns remain as drawbacks for this technology.

Cadmium Telluride

  • Micro Si
    Micro silicon cells are expected to surpass the efficiency and performance of amorphous silicon cells and become a competitor with other thin film technologies. The high efficiency and negligible degradation of Micro Si cells has been widely reported.
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
    Instead of the semiconducting materials used in most cells, TiD cells use a dye-impregnated layer of titanium dioxide to generate voltage. Because of their relatively low cost, TiO technology has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of solar cells.
Photovoltaic Concentration

Offers the best efficiency but requires high direct concentration, and is therefore only viable in some geographies.

Fresnel point focus

  • Fresnel point focus (High concentration-GaAs) (GC~500)
    Fresnel point lenses concentrate direct solar radiation onto a focal point. Since Fresnel lens can provide concentration ratios of up to 500, the necessary surface area for PV cells is greatly reduced. Since fewer PV cells are needed, it is possible to use high quality, more expensive materials like Gallium Arsenide for the semiconductors.
    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction semiconductors: Multi-junction semiconductors is a relatively new technology that offers significantly higher efficiencies than traditional, single-junction semiconductors. Each electrical field junction within a semiconductor has only one band gap energy. Incoming solar radiation will either have less energy than the band gap (and therefore will not be used), more energy than the band gap (and therefore some energy will be wasted), or the exact energy as the band gap. By having multiple junctions, GaAs semiconductors are able to utilize more energy from the incoming solar radiation.
  • Fresnel line focus (medium concentration-Si) (GC<500)
    Fresnel line lenses are flat cylindrical lenses that condense or diffuse light in a linear direction. This technology has lower concentration ratios than Fresnel point lenses, so high efficiency silicon semiconductors are used instead of expensive GaAs semiconductors.
  • Low concentration (2-4 times)
    Low concentration (2-4 times) Low concentration technology uses mirrors instead of lenses to concentrate solar radiation. Since the solar radiation is much less condensed, conventional silicon semiconductors are often used because of their affordability.

ETV Motors, Ltd.

ETV Motors, Ltd.

Suite 200
3 Abba Eban Boulevard
Herzliya 46120 Israel

Phone +972-9-951-7277
Fax +972-2-591-6017About

Founded in 2008, the exclusive focus of ETV Motors Ltd is the research, development and commercialization of critical EV components and their integration into turbine-powered Range-Extended Electric Vehicles (REEVs).

In the third quarter of 2008, ETVM raised a milestone-driven $12M investment led by The Quercus Trust. New York-based 21 Ventures, LLC, a venture capital firm concentrating on the technologies set to dominate the 21st century, is a co-investor.

ETV Motors is a private company based in Herzliya, Israel with research and test facilities at several additional locations. There are presently over 25 researchers and engineers involved in the activity.

Technology

ETV Motors Ltd is developing the enabling technologies that will facilitate the future generations of Range-Extended Electric Vehicles (REEVs).

These propulsion platforms will have unparalleled energy efficiencies and ultra-low emission signatures.

The company is engaged in three complementary activities:

Turbine Charger Advanced Battery Test Vehicle
     

Microturbines produce both heat and electricity on a relatively small scale by means of combustion. In general, they offer advantages compared with other technologies for small scale power generation.

Those advantages over reciprocating engine generators include: a small number of moving parts; compact size; light weight; greater efficiency; lower emissions; and the ability to operate with a range of fuels (eg CNG and bio-fuels). Waste heat recovery may be employed with these systems to reach very high efficiencies.

The majority of a microturbine’s waste heat is contained in its relatively high-temperature exhaust. The combined thermal electrical efficiency of microturbines in cogeneration applications where exhaust heat is utilized reach over 80%.

Turbines offer a high-powered engine in a very small and light package. This is facilitated in part due to the fact that there is no requirement for either water-cooling or exhausts catalytic conversion. However they have a time lag and provide poor fuel efficiencies at low speeds if integrated into conventional propulsion drivetrains.

REEV hybrids utilizing turbines as the on board charger will provide all the advantages as the battery will address the variable power requirements and the turbine will be operating at its “sweet spot”.

In simulation exercises, we have found that the fuel costs for ICE-powered REEVs in typical urban environments will be up to 50% more expensive than those powered by micro-turbine on-board chargers.

ETV Motors has assembled a world class team of microturbine engineers to develop its high efficiency dual power microturbine on board charger. With a track record in stationary power turbines, large and small jet engines and advanced heat exchangers, we are confident that our aggressive performance goals will be achieved in a timely and cost effective manner.

The ETV patent-pending mictroturbine design is expected to outperform the state-of the art microturbines for the following reasons:

  • The ETV mictroturbine will operate on RQL (Rich-Quench-Lean) principles and will have the unique property of achieving optimum efficiency at two operating points. This “dual mode” property will provide a number of degrees of freedom when matching the microturbine to various drive cycles and vehicle categories.
  • Proprietary valving and duct design results in minimal pressure drops
  • Advanced heat exchanger/recuperator resulting in ultra-high thermal efficiencies (>90%) with low pressure drops. (The combined hot and cold pressure drops will be less than 8.5% of maximum cycle pressure)
  • Advanced stator/rotor sealing techniques, resulting in high adiabatic efficiencies.
    Implementation of ceramic regenerative heat exchanger and turbine enabling operation at higher turbine inlet temperatures.

The characteristics of the prototype and production ETV microturbines are presented in the following table.

P1 P2 Production
Power kW 12/45 13/48 20/60
Efficiency % 37-38 38-44 45-50
Weight Kg 120 100-110 100-120
Rotational Speed RPM 80,700 80,700 TBD
Turbine Inlet Temp 0C 975 1,050 1,250-1,350
Recuperator Advanced Metal Ceramic Ceramic
Turbine Metal Metal Ceramic

The P1 turbine, with an efficiency that outperforms the present state of the art by approximately 30%, will be fully functional in Q2 2010.

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Konarka Technologies, Inc.

Konarka Technologies, Inc
116 John Street
Suite 12, 3rd Floor
Lowell, MA 01852 USA

P: +1 978-569-1400
F: +1 978-569-1402

About

Konarka is developing and advancing nano-enabled polymer photovoltaic materials that are lightweight, flexible and more versatile than traditional solar materials.

Using proprietary materials developed by our world-class technical team and low cost manufacturing processes, Konarka scientists and engineers have created an entirely unique solar material with attributes unlike any existing product. This new breed of coatable, flexible, plastic photovoltaics can be used in a wide range of applications where traditional photovoltaics cannot compete. Konarka’s technical advances will expand the relevance of solar technology across product lines, as well as across economic divides, providing low cost power wherever it is needed.

Konarka currently employs over 70 staff in the US, Europe, and Asia , with global headquarters in Lowell, Massachusetts, and European operations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and a presence in Asia.

Technology

Konarka’s Power Plastic® is made using low cost organic materials (organic photovoltaics, or OPV). Such 3rd generation technologies are rapidly emerging to displace 1st and 2nd generation technologies by overcoming their technical limitations and delivering a truly cost-effective renewable power solution.

1st Generation

Crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology was first developed more than 50 years ago at Bell Labs in New Jersey based on silicon wafers, and is known as 1st generation solar technology. Silicon-based technology is technically proven and reliable, and has succeeded in achieving market penetration, primarily in off-grid remote areas and in grid-connected applications where sufficient subsidies are available to offset its high cost. There are several inherent limitations to this 1st generation, however. Silicon wafers are fragile, making processing difficult and limiting potential applications. The process is very labor and energy intensive, and manufacturing plant capital costs are high, limiting scale-up potential. And because materials represent more than 60% of manufacturing costs and silicon supply is finite, the long term potential for cost reduction is insufficient to deliver broadly affordable energy.

2nd Generation

To simplify manufacturing and reduce costs, a 2nd generation known as thin film technologies was developed. These technologies are typically made by depositing a thin layer of photo-active material onto glass or a flexible substrate, including metal foils, and they commonly use amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), or cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the semiconductor. Thin film PV is less subject to breakage when manufactured on a flexible foil. However, the promise of low cost power has not been realized, and efficiency remains lower than that of 1st generation solar. Some questions also remain about the toxic legacy of the materials, both in manufacturing and at the end of life.

3rd Generation

It has been estimated that 3rd generation solar technologies will achieve higher efficiencies and lower costs than 1st or 2nd generation technologies (Green, M., Third Generation Photovoltaics, Advanced Solar Energy Conversion). Today, the 3rd generation approaches being investigated include dye-sensitized titania solar cells, organic photovoltaics, tandem cells, and materials that generate multiple electron-hole pairs. To maximize performance, Konarka scientists have been involved in research efforts in all of these areas, including novel combinations of these approaches.

Products

Konarka Power Plastic is a photovoltaic material that captures both indoor and outdoor light and converts it into direct current (DC) electrical energy. This energy can be used immediately, stored for later use, or converted to other forms. Power Plastic can be applied to a limitless number of potential applications – from microelectronics to portable power, remote power and building-integrated applications.

They will soon be announcing the availability of their seven standard products. These products include Konarka Power Plastic panels ranging from their KT 25 (0.25W) to their KT 3000 (26W), perfect for many portable and remote power applications.

KT 3000 (26 Watt–16 Volt)

Measuring 2384mm x 652mm (93.8″ x 25.6″) enables remote power generation for battery charging and communication devices.

KT 1500 (12 Watt–16 Volt)

Measuring 1104mm x 652mm (43.5″ x 25.6″) is designed for remote power applications requiring 12 volts of power.

KT 800 (8 Watt–8 Volt/1-Amp)

Measuring 1530mm x 352mm (60.2″ x 13.8″) is ideal for charging batteries for portable mobile phone-sized electronic devices. Connect two panels in series for charging 12-volt batteries to power laptop-sized devices.

KT 500 (5 Watt–8 Volt)

Measuring 890mm x 352mm (35.1″ x 13.8″) can harness enough power to charge portable batteries, mobile phones, PDA’s and other small devices.

KT 200 (2 Watt–8 Volt)

Measuring 464mm x 352mm (18.3″ x 13.8″) can generate enough power to charge portable batteries.

KT 50 (0.5 Watt–4 Volt)

Measuring 194mm x 172mm (7.6″ x 6.8″) can be affixed to almost any surface for charging microelectronics and sensors.

KT 25 (0.25 Watt–4 Volt)

Measuring 117mm x 172mm (4.6″ x 6.8″) can be affixed to almost any surface for charging microelectronics and sensors.

EnerG2, Inc.

 EnerG2, Inc.

Call
+1.206.274.6622

Fax
+1.425.650.7012

Email
info@energ2.com

EnerG2, Inc.
810 3rd Avenue, Suite 120
Seattle, WA  98104

About

The Science of Storage

EnerG2 and its state-of-the-art scientific approach to energy storage materials has been backed over the past five years by the public and private sectors.  Among the company’s supporters: the University of Washington, the Washington Technology Center, a state-supported economic development agency that finances applications of university research, WRF Capital of Seattle, Washington, the Sustainability Investment Fund of Portland, Oregon, OVP Venture Partners of Kirkland, Washington, and Firelake Capital Management of Palo Alto, California.

In October 2008, EnerG2 raised $8.5 million in Series A financing. The financing was led by OVP and Firelake.

Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about EnerG2:

What does the company do?

EnerG2 engineers advanced nano-structured materials for energy storage breakthroughs.

How important is energy storage to the sustainable economy?

We believe that efficient, reliable and cost-effective clean energy storage will be an essential element of the emerging post-petroleum economy.

What makes EnerG2 different?

EnerG2 approaches the problem with engineered materials solutions; and, from our perspective, it’s the materials that matter in any energy storage device.

Rather than accept the limitations of naturally occurring materials, EnerG2 uses materials science to assemble cutting-edge products at the molecular level. Controlling the molecular structure and assembly process of our engineered materials at the earliest stage possible provides flexibility, lowers costs and maximizes performance. As a result, we are delivering new capabilities and creating fresh opportunities in energy storage.

What is EnerG2 focused on today?

EnerG2 is currently focused on customizing electrode materials to enhance energy and power density in ultracapacitors, one of the essential engines of the new energy economy. Ultracapacitors, which are dependent on the performance of their materials, store and release more energy faster than conventional batteries. The size and make-up of the electrodes’ surface area helps ultracapacitors store and supply large bursts of energy; the materials also effectively enable limitless cycle life.

What are the most promising applications for ultracapacitors?

Ultracapacitors containing EnerG2 materials will be increasingly embraced by the automotive industry for hybrid electric vehicles, by electronics manufacturers for enhancing the life and usability of consumer goods, and by a variety of industrial customers to deliver an ever-increasing breadth of new ways to improve energy efficiency.

What’s next for EnerG2?

In the future, EnerG2 materials may be used to improve natural gas, methane and hydrogen storage as well as lithium-ion batteries.

Technology

The patented and proprietary technology used by EnerG2 is based on nano-structured carbon materials that are finely controlled and offer ultra-high surface areas.  These materials are extremely conductive and are tremendously attractive to energy-storing molecules such as electrolytic ions, methane, natural gas and hydrogen. The result: maximum energy storage that is exceedingly cost effective. Working in collaboration with the University of Washington Department of Materials Science & Engineering, EnerG2 has developed unique sol-gel processing technologies to construct its carbon materials.  Sol-gel processing, which creates optimal structure and purity in the finished carbon product, is a chemical synthesis that gels colloidal suspensions to form solids through heat and catalysts. EnerG2 has invented a patented ability to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions within the gelling process, and this allows the materials’ surface structures and pore-size distributions to be shaped, molded and customized for a variety of critical energy storage uses. The EnerG2 approach to energy storage material manufacturing is unique.  Most commercially available materials for energy storage are produced from naturally occurring precursors; therefore much of the performance of these derivative materials is determined by natural physical properties of the selected precursor. As a result, important characteristics such as pore-size distribution and purity are fixed within the natural precursor and are merely exposed by competitors’ various processing approaches.  Innovation at EnerG2 is derived from molecular self-assembly; to put it simply, we build our energy storage materials from scratch, and this leads to greater structural control, improved product purity and an ability to escape today’s energy storage performance limitations. EnerG2 has developed these processing capabilities with an explicit and aggressive focus on cost control.  To avoid the expensive processing typically associated with nanotechnology, the company has leveraged large-scale commercial processing technologies from established industries to design a production approach that is both relatively inexpensive and inherently scalable.

EnerG2 focuses its efforts and attention on three core carbon material groups:

  • Granules in infinitely variable carbon particle sizes are used to make high-performance electrode materials for ultracapacitors.

  • Monoliths are the carbon materials composed of the granules in relatively solid form prior to milling and are used in methane and natural gas storage systems.

  • Nano-Composites are created when carbon materials are mixed with chemical and metal hydrides; they are central to hydrogen storage systems.

Qteros

Qteros

100 Campus Drive
Marlborough, MA 01752
Phone: 508-281-4060

About

In just two years, the Qteros team has made remarkable progress enhancing strains of the Q Microbe. Our goal is to keep refining this process until our technology provides the world’s most economical and sustainable transportation energy.

The story of Qteros began in 1996 with a walk near the Quabbin Reservoir in Western Massachusetts. University of Massachusetts microbiologist Dr. Susan Leschine and her lab assistant, Tom Warnick, were looking for a microbe that breaks down plant waste, but they found something far more noteworthy. The microscopic organism they sampled from the mud and later named Clostridium phytofermentans, was isolated and recognized as a novel life form.

Known today as Q Microbe, this tiny organism has an enormous appetite for all types of cellulose and the ability to convert that cellulose directly into ethanol. What the scientists found in a spoonful of dirt has been referred to by the director of the National Renewable Energy Lab as the Holy Grail of cellulosic ethanol.

Qteros has worked with this remarkable microbe to develop and commercialize a pioneering, clean fuel technology that comes from the earth. By overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulose to release the sugars deep within the plant cell wall, the Q Microbe does today what other researchers hope to do sometime in the next decade. The company’s proprietary Complete Cellulosic Conversion (C3) process simplifies and dramatically improves the economics of the equation.

Qteros technology is impressively versatile. It breaks down and ferments many types of non-food plant and tree waste in an ethanol-producing process that doesn’t compete with the food industry. It reduces the conventional two-step conversion process to one step, saving time, money, and energy. In addition, our patented Q Microbe is naturally occurring, and the process is sustainable and very close to carbon neutral.

Technology

Creating a clean, sustainable, domestic transportation fuel from non-food sources requires scientific ingenuity and disciplined, hard work. The Qteros team is on the technology development path to achieve this ambitious goal with the Q Microbe.

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Q-Microbe
The Q Microbe (Clostridium phytofermentans) is a super-bug. This lollipop-shaped microscopic organism has unique properties that make it ideally suited to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a variety of non-food plant materials.

Graph of lignocel

Fig. 1 – What is lignocellulosic biomass?

Typically, cellulosic biomass goes through an intensive pretreatment step. Then enzymes are used to break down the biomass into simple sugars suitable for fermentation by yeast into ethanol. These enzymes, along with the intensive pretreatment required for their use, are the largest single-cost component of cellulosic ethanol production. The Qteros team has developed the technology to eliminate the need for a separate enzymatic breakdown step that also broadens pretreatment options.

The Q Microbe breaks down a wide variety of plant materials, including corn residues, cane bagasse, woody biomass, cellulose waste, and more. It produces prodigious amounts of ethanol by generating its own enzymes and then fermenting the C5 and C6 sugars. The microbe can be engineered to optimize ethanol output from a specific plant material, increasing net energy yield for the whole system. It is the “yeast” component of the conventional bioconversion process plus the enzyme component, all in one.

The C3 Process

Overcoming the difficulty and expense of breaking down plant material is one of the biggest challenges facing the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry. Solving this is the key to a low-cost solution, and Qteros has that solution.

Graph of C3 process

Fig. 1 – Conventional cellulosic ethanol production
versus the C3 Process

In our proprietary Complete Cellulosic Conversion (C3) process, the Q Microbe simultaneously decomposes and ferments cellulosic biomass to ethanol. It converts both cellulose and hemicellulosic plant material. This remarkable microbe not only eliminates the need for costly enzymes, it simplifies the entire ethanol production process, allowing for pre-treatments that are easier on the environment.

Getting More for Less
This ability of the Q Microbe to convert all of the fermentable components of biomass to ethanol enables the C3 process to have higher yields than other bioconversion processes. By avoiding the cost associated with the production, purification, and application of specific enzyme cocktails, it offers cost savings to facilitate large-scale ethanol production from a wide variety of cellulosic biomass. It also allows for a broader range of pretreatment options with further cost savings.

Optimal Energy Ltd.

Optimal Energy Ltd.

Cape Town, South Africa

About

Optimal Energy (Pty) Ltd is a privately owned South African company based in Cape Town, headed-up by CEO Kobus Meiring. He founded Optimal Energy in 2005 with Mike Lomberg, Jian Swiegers and Gerhard Swart. An investment from the Innovation Fund (IF), an instrument of the Department of Science and Technology of the South African Government made this venture possible. The founders together with Diana Blake and Ratilal Rowji are the executive management team of Optimal Energy. The current shareholders in Optimal Energy comprise executive management, the IF and the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) of South Africa.

The Vision

The world’s finite energy sources are being used inefficiently and urban transport plays a major role in energy wastage and climate changing pollution. Optimal Energy aims to change that by specialising in and delivering class leading solutions for urban transport. It is Optimal Energy’s vision to establish and lead an electric vehicle industry in South Africa and to expand globally.

Optimal Energy therefore capitalises on the opportunity presented by the exponential increase in oil costs and the dramatic improvement in battery price, lifecycle and performance. Its value proposition is made more compelling when environmental influencers such as increasing pollution, climate change and other phenomena caused by the rapid increase in urbanisation are considered. And most significantly the comparatively affordable technology required for the electric vehicles is ready now. A solution that produces zero emissions, the highest wheel-to-wheel efficiency and minimal lifecycle footprint. Better still, a solution that requires minimal support infrastructure.

The Team

Optimal Energy employs more than 70 staff and is expanding rapidly. 80% of the ever-growing team have University degrees, a substantial compliment of who have both masters and PhDs. Their passion for renewable, clean energy is m

The Vision

anifested in Joule, the company’s first product offering set to transform the face of the urban transportation landscape. Developed in association with Keith Helfet and a team of dedicated experts in Cape Town, the battery electric MPV is nothing short of a world-class innovative triumph.

The Team

 

Product

Joule is Africa’s first battery electric engineering masterpiece from Optimal Energy. The silent passenger MPV is manufactured as a standard six-seater which complies with UN-ECE safety standards offering an optimal, no-compromise, and zero emission urban driving experience.

Joule is as beautiful and elegant as it is stylish with a classically timeless appeal set to transform the face of the urban transportation landscape. Developed from the outset as an electric vehicle, Joule delivers optimal design, maximum interior space and a minimal exterior and environmental footprint.

  • Maximum 400km Range
  • Regenerative ABS Braking system
  • Steel space frame and side impact protection
  • Two dynamic drive train options
  • Excellent vehicle handling and dynamics
  • Sports-like acceleration from standstill
  • Optimal interior space with minimal exterior footprint

SolFocus Inc.

SolFocus Inc.

 

 

SolFocus, Inc.

510 Logue Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone: +1.650.623.7100
Fax: +1.650.623.7101

 

SolFocus Europe, Inc.

María de Molina 39 7° Izq.
28006 Madrid, Spain
Phone: + 34.91.177.3900
About

SolFocus has developed leading concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology which combines high-efficiency solar cells (approaching 40%) and advanced optics to provide solar energy solutions which are scalable, dependable and capable of delivering on the promise of clean, low-cost, renewable energy.

The SolFocus mission is to enable solar energy generation at a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) competitive with traditional fossil fuel sources. To achieve this goal, SolFocus has developed leading concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology which combines high-efficiency solar cells (approaching 40%) and advanced optics to provide solar energy solutions which are scalable, dependable and capable of delivering on the promise of clean, low-cost, renewable energy. SolFocus is headquartered in Mountain View, California with European operations headquartered in Madrid, Spain, and manufacturing in Mesa, Arizona as well as with manufacturing partners in India and China.

Technolgy

SolFocus Technology Highlights

By concentrating sunlight using innovative optics onto a small area of high-efficiency solar cell material, SolFocus systems dramatically reduce the amount of expensive and often supply-constrained solar material used in the system. Learn more about SolFocus technology by selecting the components below.

Sol Focus CPV Sytems

CPV Power Unit

CPV Power Unit

Solfocus has developed an innovative reflective optic system which includes a primary mirror to capture sunlight and secondary mirror and non-imaging optic to concentrate it at 500 suns onto high-efficiency III-V solar cells.

CPV Power Unit

  • All-glass optics for durability
  • Low optical losses for high efficiency
  • Wide acceptance angle for high yield and lower cost
  • Designed to avoid chromatic aberrations and cell mismatching
  • High efficiency cells greater than 38% efficiency compared to 13% to 19% efficiency for silicon PV cells
  • 1cm2 cell per unit results in use of 1/1000th the active PV material
  • Robust cell design, originally designed for the demanding environment of satellites in space
  • High performance at high temperatures – not impacted by temperature degradation as are silicon PV cells

CPV Panel

CPV Panel

The CPV Power units are integrated into a robust panel design which is optimized for high efficiency, high reliability, and field durability. The panels are TUV certified and CEC listed.

CPV Panel

  • Industry-leading efficiency and power output
  • TUV certified, CEC listed
  • Power output rated at operational conditions
  • High energy output sustained at high temperatures
  • Utilize field-proven materials for high reliability and field durability
  • 95% glass and aluminum components for high recyclability
  • Glass components immune to long-term UV degradation
  • Panels fully enclosed with no exposed mirrors
  • Passive cooling system for high reliability and low cost

CPV System

CPV System

SolFocus CPV systems with their industry-leading efficiency can be deployed from small to large-scale installations, providing high energy output and maximum energy production per area of land.

CPV System

  • Maintains high energy output at high temperatures
  • Maximizes energy production per acre/hectare to reduce land use
  • Systems scalable from hundreds of kilowatts to 50+ megawatt installations
  • Allows dual-use of land
  • Robust, industrialized design for field durability and system reliability
  • High-volume manufacturing not impacted by silicon supply constraints

Dual-Axis Tracker

Dual-Axis Tracker

SolFocus CPV panels are integrated with dual axis trackers and precise tracker control systems which are optimized for the SolFocus panels, maintaining high energy output throughout the day.

Dual-Axis Tracker

  • SolFocus designed trackers are optimized for SolFocus panels and integrated into a complete system
  • Engineered for optimum stiffness and provide tracking accuracy of 0.1 degree
  • Extended tracking range for all locations
  • Ephemeris-based open-loop tracking
  • Self-calibration using proprietary SolFocus control system
  • Wind and night stow positions for safety and reliability
  • System monitoring software calibrates pointing accuracy
  • Remote system management reduces onsite maintenance

GreatPoint Energy

GreatPoint Energy

GreatPoint Energy
222 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone: 617.401.8760
Fax: 617.849.5691

GreatPoint Energy
222 S. Riverside Plaza
Suite 2750
Chicago, IL 60606
Phone: 312.564.4485

Pilot Plant
Project and Operations Office
GreatPoint Energy – Brayton Point, LLC.
1547 Fall River Avenue
Building 3 – Suite #3B
Seekonk, MA 02771
774.901.5626 – Main Line
774.901.5815 – Office Administrator,
Kelly Jo, Direct Line
774.901.5814 – Fax

About
GreatPoint Energy is a technology-driven natural resources company and the developer of a proprietary, highly-efficient catalytic process, known as hydromethanation, by which coal, petroleum coke and biomass are converted directly into low-cost, clean, pipeline quality natural gas, while allowing for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2).

GreatPoint Energy plans to build, own and operate large-scale natural gas production facilities strategically located at the intersection of natural gas pipelines and low-cost feedstock, as well as at locations where the CO2 produced and captured in its process can be geologically sequestered. The Company has identified numerous such locations and is in advanced development of its first commercial facility.

The Company’s cost of production is expected to be significantly lower than current prices of new drilled natural gas and imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), and the natural gas it produces, called bluegas™ meets all high-grade natural gas quality specifications. It can be transported through the thousands of miles of pipelines already in place around the world and can be used interchangeably with drilled natural gas for all applications, including power generation, residential and commercial heating, and the production of chemicals.

The Company has raised $140 million to date and is backed by leading strategic investors including The Dow Chemical Company, Suncor Energy, AES Corporation, and Peabody Energy, as well as major financial institutions and venture capital firms, including Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Khosla Ventures, Draper Fisher Jurvetson, Advanced Technology Ventures, and Citi’s Sustainable Development Investments.

Technology

Hydromethanation is an elegant and highly efficient process by which natural gas is produced through the reaction of steam and carbonaceous solids in the presence of a catalyst. The process enables the conversion of low-cost feedstock such as coal, petroleum coke and biomass (wood waste, municipal solid waste, and energy crops such as poplar and switchgrass) into clean, high-purity methane.

The chemistry of catalytic hydromethanation involves reacting steam (2H2O) and carbon (2C) to produce methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) according to the following reaction:

Hydromethanation Reaction

The first step in the hydromethantion process is to combine the catalyst with the feedstock in such a way as to ensure that the catalyst disperses throughout the matrix of the feedstock for effective reactivity. The catalyst/feedstock material is then loaded into the hydromethanation reactor. Inside the reactor, pressurized steam is injected to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal or biomass. These reactions (shown below) catalyzed in a single reactor and at the same low temperature, generate a mixture predominately composed of methane and CO2.

Hydromethanation Reactions

The overall combination of reactions is thermally neutral, requiring no addition or removal of energy, making it highly efficient.

The proprietary catalyst formulation is made up of abundantly available, low-cost metal materials specifically designed to promote gasification at the low temperatures where water gas shift and reactions concurrently take place. The catalyst is continuously recycled and reused within the process shown below.

Hydromethanation Process

By adding this catalyst to the system, GreatPoint Energy is able to reduce the operating temperature in the gasifier while directly promoting the reactions that yield methane. Under these mild “catalytic” conditions, less expensive reactor components can be utilized, pipeline grade methane is produced, and very low-cost carbon sources (such as lignites, sub-bituminous coals, petroleum coke and biomass) can be used as feedstock.

As part of the overall process, the bluegas™ technology enables the recovery of contaminants in coal, petroleum coke and biomass as useful byproducts. In addition, roughly half the carbon in the feedstock is removed and captured as a pure CO2 stream suitable for sequestration.

Hydromethanation yields dramatically improved economics for the production of natural gas and an environmental footprint equivalent to that of the most environmentally-friendly commercial fuel.

Luca Technologies Inc.

Luca Technologies Inc.

Golden Office Gillette Office

LUCA Technologies Inc. LUCA Technologies Inc.
500 Corporate Circle PO Box 7070
Suite C Gillette, WY 82717
Golden, Colorado 80401

(303) 534-4344 Phone (307) 686-9488 Phone
(303) 534-1446 Fax (307) 686-9472 Fax
(877) 445-7082 Toll Free
info@lucatechnologies.com email

 

About
International Energy Agency

LUCA Technologies is developing a novel, long-term, biotechnology-driven solution to rising U.S. dependence on foreign energy sources. Addressing the $150 billion domestic natural gas market, the company is leveraging the ability of naturally occurring microorganisms to convert under-utilized domestic oil, organic-rich shale and coal resources to clean, renewable energy.

The company’s business is characterized by:

* A technology platform based on the discovery, characterization and management of naturally occurring consortia of ancient, anaerobic microorganisms (those that live without oxygen) that metabolize oil, organic-rich shale and coal within the earth into natural gas, thus generating clean renewable energy in a continuous, “real time” fashion. LUCA employs genomics, molecular biology and other tools of biotechnology to detect, classify and study these organisms and the underground “Geobioreactors” in which they act. Company scientists are also developing methods of managing specific consortia’s gas production capabilities in situ for the large-scale production of natural gas and potentially, hydrogen.

* A growing library of coal seam, organic-rich shale and oil field cores from massive hydrocarbon accumulations, each with its own consortia of anaerobic microorganisms for study.

* A management team whose expertise combines a long track record of developing energy resources within the oil and gas industry with scientific expertise in molecular biology, microbiology and biochemistry and their application to renewable energy.

Domestic energy needs in the United States far outstrip today’s readily accessible energy resources, which has forced an ever-increasing dependence on foreign fuels. At the same time, existing U.S. energy resources are significantly underutilized, in part due to the inefficiencies of even the most modern extraction methods employed today. LUCA is developing methods for optimizing the natural gas-producing activity of natural Geobioreactors it identifies, as well as methods of turning other energy resources – such as oil wells that are no longer actively producing – into efficiently functioning Geobioreactors. In doing so, LUCA believes it will open the door to the creation of a new industry with the potential to solve U.S. domestic energy needs long-term, as well as provide a cost-effective, reliable and renewable source of the cleanest burning hydrocarbon fuel.

LUCA is currently working to demonstrate the viability of its technology not only in the laboratory, but also in the real world. The company initially expects to provide consulting services to existing energy producers, helping them to evaluate their current oil, organic-rich shale and gas holdings for the presence of natural Geobioreactors or the potential for Geobioreactor stimulation. LUCA will then leverage the further in situ development of its technology in partnership with those oil and gas producers, and the company may also develop specific sites and Geobioreactor production programs on its own.

Technology

LUCA Technologies has recently discovered that on-going biogenic production of methane (natural gas) is taking place today in a number of large coal fields in the United States. This methane production is the result of indigenous populations of microorganisms that, in the absence of oxygen, metabolize the large hydrocarbon molecules present in coal and oil into smaller hydrocarbons, principally methane. The company describes these naturally occurring methane factories as “Geobioreactors”.

To leverage this discovery, LUCA has undertaken a program to understand and manipulate these microorganisms in order to ultimately maximize methane production in existing Geobioreactors, and hopefully stimulate its production in currently non-reactive hydrocarbon deposits. Methane is the least polluting and most energy efficient of all the available hydrocarbon fuels. LUCA believes that, if developed and managed properly, methane-producing Geobioreactors have the potential to meet U.S. energy needs for the foreseeable future.

Acciona Energy

 Acciona Energy

In 19 countries

The Energy Division of ACCIONA has over 200 companies in 19 countries.

The corporate purpose of most of them is the development of wind parks and the production of electricity from them. Within the wind power sector the group also has manufacturing companies that produce wind turbines.

ACCIONA Energy also has companies that operate in the thermolectric field (biomass and solar thermoelectric), solar (photovoltaic and thermal), biofuels and others.

About

World leader in renewables

ACCIONA Energía is a world leader in the renewables sector. The company has taken on the mission of demonstrating the technical and economic viability of a new energy model on the basis of criteria of sustainability.

ACCIONA Energía is present in the main clean energies, in line with their different levels of maturity and profitability. It focuses its activities on wind power, in which it is the largest developer and constructor of windparks in the world.

It is also present in other electric power generation technologies based on renewable energy sources -biomass, small hydro and solar-, and also in the manufacture of wind turbines (designed in-house) and the production and marketing of biofuels. It also has assets in the field of cogeneration.

ACCIONA Energía is currently carrying out research projects to produce hydrogen from wind power, to manufacture more efficient wind turbines and to optimize the production of biofuels.

The company has a workforce of over 1,000 people, one of the biggest and most highly qualified in the clean energies field.

The solidity of a great group

ACCIONA Energía is the energy division of ACCIONA, a leading group in infrastructures and services aimed at sustainable development and social welfare.

ACCIONA is a homogeneous and integrated business group with a focus on operations with high added value that enable it to create synergies and make profitable investments in strategic sectors.

Technology

Wind energy

A global leader in wind energy

ACCIONA Energy focuses its activity on wind energy, a field in which it has so far installed 5,577 MW at 30 September 2008. It has built 200 windparks for itself and other companies with over 5,500 turbines, making it the world leader in the development and construction of windparks. At the same time, it has 900 MW under construction and around 15,000 MW in development.

The wind power installed by ACCIONA Energy in Spain amounts to 4,471 MW.

On all five continents

As well as Spain, there are windparks installed by ACCIONA in the United States, Canada, Germany, Australia, Italy, Greece, Hungary, France, India, Portugal, South Korea, Mexico and Morocco. Of these, 142 windparks (4,105 MW) are owned by the Group, with an attributable capacity of 3,285 MW. The 58 windparks built for other companies account for 1,472 MW.

ACCIONA is currently building windparks in most of the above mentioned countries.

Current projects are being carried out in the United Kingdom, Croacia, Poland and Slovenia.

Production

In 2007, ACCIONA Energy produced a total of 7,494 GWh of wind energy, of which 6,316 GWh were produced in Spain and 1,178 GWh in other countries. Attributable wind energy generation reached 5,570 GWh.

In the first nine months of 2008, the wind energy production was 5,840 GWh (4,784 GWh in Spain and 1,056 GWh in other countries). The attributable wind energy generation was 4,620 GWh.

Mini hydro

19 small hydro plants in operation

ACCIONA Energy has 19 small hydro power plants located in different river basins in Navarre (Spain). Their total installed capacity is 58.79 MW.

In 2007 hydroelectric production from these plants reached 193 million kilowatt-hours. Until September 2008, the power output was 182 GWh.

ACCIONA also handles the operation and maintenance of another six hidroelectrical plants.

Biomass

Three plants in operation and seven under development

ACCIONA Energy is present in the field of biomass with three plants that total 33 MW of installed capacity. They produced around 240 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) a year.

The largest is a 25 MW cereal straw-fired plant in Sangüesa (Navarre), a pioneering facility in southern Europe in the exploitation of this source of renewable energy. Its average annual output is around 200 million kWh.

In addition to the Sangüesa plant, ACCIONA Energy has biomass plants in Talosa (province of Soria) and Pinasa (Cuenca), each one with 4 MW capacity.

New projects

The company is giving a boost to the biomass business in Spain. It plans to install seven new plants in different Spanish regions, which will be entering into operation between 2010 and 2012. They total 110 MW of capacity, 306 million euros investment and an estimated annual output of 880 million kWh. These facilities will represent 175 direct and 515 indirect new jobs, mainly devoted to primary sector.

In the region of Castilla y León, it is developing three new plants summing 55 MW of installed capacity and represent an investment of 140 million euros. The three facilities -located in Almazán (Soria) -15 MW-, Briviesca (Burgos) -15 MW- and Valencia de don Juan (León) -25 MW- will be participated by the Regional Energy Board (EREN).

Altogether the three plants will produce around 440 million kWh a year, equivalent to the demand of 180,000 homes. They will also create 300 jobs and will avoid the emission of 423,000 tonnes of CO2.

The plants planned in Castilla-La Mancha are located in Mohorte (Cuenca) and Alcázar de San Juan (Ciudad Real), with a total investment of 86 M€.

ACCIONA also projects to install a 15 MW biomass plant in Miajadas (Cáceres) and a 10 MW one in Utiel (Valencia)

Solar energy

Leaders in solar energy

ACCIONA works with all three solar technologies – concentrating solar power (CSP), photovoltaic and solar hot water – amounting to a total owned capacity of 194 MW, of which 113 MW are owned by the company.

The company has so far installed 81.32 MW for other companies, of which 66.18 MW are photovoltaic, 14.14 MW are solar heating and 1 MW are CSP.

Technology Owned capacity Capacity for other companies Total capacity
CSP 64.00 1 65.00
Hot water 0.72 14.14 14.86

The largest concentrating solar power plant in 17 years

In June 2007, in the state of Nevada (USA), ACCIONA connected to the grid the the largest CSP facility of its type in the world in the last 17 years: the 64 MW Nevada Solar One plant. The company has a 97.7% stake in the facility, which is operational since June 2007.

ACCIONA has various CSP plants under development in Spain – all of which have a capacity of 50 MW – and is also involved in major projects in the south-western United States.

The leading developer of photovoltaic energy in Spain

The photovoltaic capacity installed by ACCIONA at 30 September 2008 amounts to 114.44 MW. Through its subsidiary ACCIONA Solar, the Group has developed the concept of “huertas solares” (solar gardens), a system that has allowed more than 3.500 people to become owners of photovoltaic installations.

The “huertas solares” installed by the company – 18 in total – amount to a capacity of 61,5 MW and are located in diferent Spanish regions.

ACCIONA is currently building what will be the biggest solar photovoltaic plant in the world in Moura (Portugal), with a capacity of 46 MW. It is expected to be fully grid-connected by December 2008.

Solar hot water

In the field of thermal solar energy (solar hot water), ACCIONA Solar has installed 14 MW to date, virtually all of which has been for other companies.

The company is the leader in the installation of this technology in Spain.

Energy efficient building

ACCIONA is also involved in the field of energy efficient buildings, incorporating solar technology as much as possible.

The most notable example of this is ACCIONA Solar’s head office, a building which consumes 52% less energy than a conventional building of the same characteristics, thanks to the use of numerous measures for using energy efficiently and making energy savings, covering 48% of its needs from photovoltaic solar power – electricity; thermal solar power – climate control; and biodiesel.

This means that the office is classified as a “zero emissions” building, as it can cover its energy requirements without emitting CO2.

Biofuels

In biodiesel and bioethanol

ACCIONA Energy works in the area of biofuels for transport, a sector which represents over 30% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the OCDE countries and 50% of the global oil demand (67% in the European Union).

The company has already presence in the field of biodiesel, with a 70,000-tonnes production plant in Navarra, and a 200,000-tonnes one under construction in Bilbao. It also owns a 26,000-tonnes bioethanol plant in Castilla-La Mancha (central Spain).

The European Commission has set the objective of a 5.75% quota for biofuels in road transport consumption by 2010. Spain has adopted that goal by establishing a 5.83% quota in the Plan for Renewable Energies, approved by the Government in 2005. The EU plans to increase that goal up to 10% in 2020.

Wind turbines

ACCIONA Windpower, a global supplier

ACCIONA Windpower, is the ACCIONA’s subsidiary company that works on the design, manufacture, field assembly and marketing of wind turbines,  based on the experience of the group to which it belongs in the operation and maintenance of wind power facilities worldwide. It produces 1,500 kW and 3,000 kW wind turbines which have been designed from the point of view of the wind farm operator interested in achieving the best performance throughout the working life of the machine.In 2007 ACCIONA Windpower produced 582 turbines (873 MW). This figure is higher than the company’s production in the three previous years and duplicates the 2006 figure (426 MW), thus consolidating its position in the world ranking of major wind turbine manufacturers. The company expects to finish this year with over 1,500 MW of new capacity installed.

For years after having launched the AW-1500, one of the most reliable wind turbines in the market of the megawatt segment, ACCIONA Windpower introduced the new AW-3000 at Windpower 2008 Exhibition in Houston (Texas, USA) last June. It is based on the same concept of strong, reliable and durable wind turbine as its successful predecessor and extent our capacity to meet the rising market expectations.

Four wind turbine assembly plants

ACCIONA Windpower has four wind turbine manufacturing facilities, two in Spain, one in China and one in the USA. Their total annual production capacity is 2,625 MW.

ACCIONA Windpower also has an assembly plant for hubs and other components in Toledo (Spain) and will build a blade production plant in Navarre (Spain) in 2008; its opening is planned for the end of the same year.

Turbines in wind parks in twelve countries

By the end of 2008 ACCIONA Windpower turbines will have been installed in wind parks in twelve countries: Spain, the US, Canada, Mexico, Australia, China, South Korea, Italy, Greece, France, the UK and Poland.

A good part of these projects have been (or will be) carried out by other companies with which ACCIONA Windpower has signed contracts for the supply of turbines. This modality will increase over the next few years.

Working on design since 1997

The technology developed by ACCIONA Windpower is the result of more than fourteen years of knowledge accumulated by one of the most technical teams in the world on the operation and maintenance of wind parks.

The ACCIONA Group’s experience and acumen gained from the management of wind parks containing thousands of wind turbines of different technologies installed in various countries has been the cornerstone to the succesful development of our technology.

Before launching series production of the AW 1500 the company installed three prototypes of a 1300 kW in 2000-2002, followed by twenty units of the same model in a wind park in Navarre.

Work on the series production of the 1.5 MW machine started in 2004. To date, over 2,000 units have been assemblied.