Category: Solar Techs

Utility Scale Solar, Inc.

Utility Scale Solar, Inc.
Suite 300
228 Hamilton Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94301
Phone: 650-798-5152    FAX: 650-798-5001
Email: info [at]


Utility Scale Solar, Inc. and its management team are dedicated to helping states, utilities, solar power plant builders, operators and investors achieve market rate with solar electric power generation and thereby make easy and inevitable the switch to carbon-free renewables.

Peter Childers, CEO and President

Peter Childers has 18 years experience leading advanced technology companies and business lines in a career that spans microelectronics manufacturing, telecommunications, systems management software, open source, and clean energy. Pete has played key roles leading innovation, operations and growth at companies from early stage thru IPO to NYSE listing. Pete specializes in developing opportunites in fully commoditized or new and disruptive fields where experts are saying, “that can’t be done”. The teams he develops create flexible business mechanisms that deliver overwhelmingly better customer value than competitors. In 1998 Pete joined open source software pioneer Red Hat, Inc. [NYSE: RHT] as employee 41, where he founded and grew the company’s second largest line of business to $60M, attracting over 500,000 paying customers worldwide and changing the game in software, IT training and certification in an arena where everyone was saying “that can’t be done”. Pete also developed online strategy and online business for this highly successful publicly traded company, ranked #1 for customer value 5 years in a row by CIO magazine. In 2007 Pete moved to Silicon Valley where he has been advising open source companies and developing new technology and ventures on the energy and cleantech frontier. Pete is co-inventor of the Megahelion drive.

Jonathan Blitz, CTO and VP Product Development

Jonathan Blitz is a versatile technologist with a background in ceramics, high temparature materials science and over five years of clean energy innovation. A graduate of the University of Missouri, Blitz spent five years in management at a ceramics equipment company and is a specialist in kiln firing and heating technologies and related materials science. Blitz has experience in design and maintenance of gas, electric and oil process heating control systems; biofuel processing and related engine and furnace modifications; piping, welding and manufacturing technologies and manufacturing suited to high heat-stress environments. An early pioneer and innovator in alternative fuels, Blitz has logged over 60,000 miles in his ‘Frytruck’, a Ford F250 diesel modified to refine and burn straight vegetable oil. A cum laude graduate of St. Louis University’s School of Law, Blitz served a two-year appointment as law clerk to a Senior United States Judge in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. Blitz is licensed and has practiced in Missouri, Illinois and North Carolina. Blitz is co-inventor of the Megahelion drive.

James Carucci, P.E., Chief of Plant Design and Engineering

James Carucci, P.E. is a professional engineer with 3 decades of leadership and achievement in advanced energy systems, thermodynamic systems analysis, and power plant design. An early innovator in CSP, Jim led a 1979 team project for a solar thermal concentrator that delivered steam to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s steam system over 16 years. At GE Power Systems Division Jim developed system designs for 60 MW solar thermal receivers, high temperature battery arrays, fuel cells, and IGCC. At UTC/Carrier Corporation Jim designed structures and piping systems for 250kW packaged fuel cell power plants. At Plug Power Jim tested and developed system designs for fuel cell power plants, including hybrid designs combining organic Rankine cycle, hydrogen storage, air and fuel compressors, and absorption refrigeration. Jim’s experience and talent in advanced energy technology, mechanical/electrical systems architecture, economic energy analysis, design/implementation, and systems integration/testing make him uniquely suited to lead the plant engineering team at USS, Inc. and bring next generation CSP innovations and new cost-efficient CSP plant designs to customers.

Tony Seba, Vice-President, Corporate Development

Tony Seba is a Silicon Valley industry veteran with 20 years operating experience in fast-growth high technology companies as CEO, CFO, and GM of major business lines in software, hardware, online B2B and supply chain businesses. Over the span of his career Tony has launched and organized project financing for more than 20 new products and product lines. As founder and CEO of Tony raised $30 million in investment capital. Prior to Tony held key positions leading business development and strategy for Cisco Systems and for RSA Data Security. Tony is the author of Winners Take All – The 9 Fundamental Rules of High Tech Strategy. A global executive who teaches and advises other global executives, Tony has been invited to teach high tech strategy and entrepreneurship at business schools and business development organizations worldwide. Tony is a lecturer at Stanford in high tech finance, strategy, and entrepreneurship.

Ben Shyman, Director, Finance and Business Development

Ben Shyman has 12 years experience in financial and economic analysis of traditional and renewable energy projects and markets, including comparative analysis. Ben provides financial models and analysis for USS clients, developers, lenders and investors. Ben works with clients on detailed analysis of plant capital cost, O&M, LEC, PPA, cashflow, project finance, and international finance. Prior to joining USS Ben was Founder, Managing Member and Senior Portfolio Manger of The Haussler Group, LLC, a New York based hedge fund specializing in energy, commodities and basic materials. From 2000 to 2006 Ben was Portfolio Manager and Securities Analyst for John A. Levin & Company, with primary focus on energy and responsible for over one billion dollars of investments in the Firm’s value-oriented portfolios. Ben also served as Portfolio Manager of the Firm’s Global Energy Sector Strategy Fund. Ben was Equity Research Analyst at First Albany Corporation and Research Associate at Gerard Klauer Mattison & Company. Ben earned a BA from SUNY, Binghamton in 1992 and a MBA from Columbia University in 1996.


USS was founded on advances in single and multi-axis positioning that enable new architectures for solar tracking across all solar formats. USS provides low cost, super-robust heliostats and sun-tracking systems for utility scale CSP, CPV, and Tracking PV based power generation.

Heliostats and sun-tracking systems account for 25% – 55% of CSP, Tracking PV, CPV plant capital costs and O&M costs. USS lowers these costs dramatically. Our products also enable significant savings on plant infrastructure and balance of system. USS delivers the full value of your total solar capture investment at far lower cost, creating potential for plant profitability at peak or baseload without subsidy or tax credit.

Megahelion[TM] dual axis heliostats for CSP, sun trackers for PV, CPV

  • Accepts any size mirror, or PV array, or CPV array, from 4m2 to 144m2
  • Robust drive technology
    • Indifferent to wind loads whether sustained or gusting
    • Indifferent to weight: spaceframe and applications can be of any metal
    • Impervious to dust, moisture and vibration
  • Only five moving parts
  • No gears, and therefore no backlash
  • Continuous smooth motion without stepping
  • Precision results achieved with non-precision components
  • Massive power: capable of up to 100,000 foot pounds of hinge moment
  • Better aiming with no degradation in accuracy over time
  • Sustains accuracy levels required for CSP, CPV over life of plant (25 years)
  • Improved manageability
    • Repair or replace drive components without dismasting
    • Self-powered option, no need to wire heliostat field
    • Fewer repairs, less costly repairs, more uptime
    • Can be maintained, repaired, or replaced on site by semi-skilled tradesmen
  • Lower cost of capital
  • Lower operating cost
  • Lower LCOE: 11% to 35% lower, depending on solar format and other factors

Megahelion[TM] line: single axis tracking for TPV, Trough, Fresnel

  • All of the above benefits in a simplified single-axis drive
  • Can be sized and adapted to drive
    • Long rows of trough for CSP
    • Fresnel panels for CSP
    • Long rows or arrays for single axis Tracking PV
  • OEM solutions available to qualified distributors, suppliers, integrators

SunNight Solar

 SunNight Solar

5802 Val Verde St.
Suite 100
Houston, Texas 77057



SunNight Solar is leading a new movement in delivering products to the consumer, focusing on what is being called a ‘triple bottom line’ or a 3P approach – people, planet and profits. All of their operations and programs have all three of these elements – they have integrated social and environmental benefits into every aspect of their company, while earning the profits which allow them to grow, develop new products via dedicated research and development and provide a return to their employees and investors.

The founder of SNS, Mark Bent, lived in Africa for over twenty years, first as an American diplomat, then as an oil executive for a French firm. While living in Eritrea in 2005, he wanted to provide lights to some of his friends, employees, and some children he had befriended who survived by scavenging in the local dump. When he could not find anything suitable – he started SNS, made a light which is now the leader in off-grid lighting products in Africa, parts of south and Central America . They also anticipate this light – their SunLight series – to quickly become the flashlight of choice in the US , Europe and the rest of the developing world.

They are based in Houston , Texas . The senior management team has a variety of skills, backgrounds and areas of concentration – international sales, chief of operations, head of logistics, etc. They are also augmented by a team of research scientists, engineers and specialists, some based in the US , as well as a number from Europe, China , New Zealand and elsewhere. They bring people together for specific tasks, and also have the opportunity to call upon the top universities and scientists in the world – they greatly appreciate the benefits of on-line collaborative research. They partner with a firm called Innocentive – – which offers cash awards for ‘solving’ technical challenges.

They are working on additional products – lights as well as water treatment and other solar consumer products. They are presently involved in research on a solar powered device which kills, repels or sterilizes the female mosquito. They are also looking at hydroponics.




  • Night Glow Strip – it is easy to find in the dark
  • High efficiency Polycrystalline Solar Panel
  • Charges in 8 to 10 hours of full sunlight
  • Provides 5-6 hours of illumination every night
  • Hard ABS Plastic Exterior – highly water and shock resistant and shaped to fit comfortably in your hand
  • Carrying Hook – hook it to your backpack on the go, or hang it up to illuminate a wider area
  • Battery Compartment – powered by 3 standard NiMH, AA rechargeable batteries, 800 mAh
  • 6 Super Bright White LEDs
  • Dimensions (Length x Width x Thickness):  8.5″ x 2.5″ (body) or 3.625″ (head) x 1″ (body) or 2″ (head)



  • Electronic “kerosene lantern substitution” design funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. In 3rd world use this same light will save users money presently spent on lighting kerosene and reduce carbon particulate inhalation and fire risk
  • High efficiency “boost converter” and “constant current” LED drive ensures constant user selected level of brightness regardless of state of battery charge
  • Charge termination to protect batteries from over-charging
  • Turns off when battery is almost flat to protect battery and improve battery life
  • High efficiency Polycrystalline Solar Panel
  • Batteries charge in 8 to 10 hours of full sunlight
  • Batteries are air-cooled for better operation in very hot conditions
  • Wide beam “Room Light” and bright narrow beam Task light mode
  • Low, medium and high settings in both Room Light and Task Light modes. This allows either high intensity or extended periods of use. On a fully charged battery, high will typically operate for 4 to 5 hours, medium for 8 to 10 hours and low for 16 to 20+ hours. (Duration will reduce as batteries age)
  • Night glow strip – easy to find in the dark
  • Single piece case – rugged, requiring no screws to hold the body together
  • Water resistant
  • “Turn off in sun” and “turn off when nearly flat” features allows use in path light or night light mode. Small battery reserve allows auto turn on again with same setting next evening
  • Carabineer clip for one handed attachment to backpack, ropes, branches etc
  • Half Watt polycrystalline (not amorphous) high efficiency photovoltaic panel.
  • Six narrow angle high efficiency LEDs for task light illumination
  • Three wide angle high efficiency LEDs for room illumination
  • Three NiMH batteries – better for the environment – We do not use NiCad batteries
  • High impact resistance ABS body & polycarbonate lens
  • Dimensions   Length     x     Width     x     Thickness:  Head/Body      9″          x 3.8″ / 2.4″   x      2.3″ / 1.3″
  • Weight – 11 ounces / 300 grams


Additional Comments from Our Engineering Staff – The SL-2 Super BOGO light is intended to be a rugged, long life, solar rechargeable light whose primary purpose is for kerosene lantern replacement and task lighting in developing world applications. It was designed to provide wide angle illumination with more usable light than a kerosene hurricane lantern in rooms up to 4 x 4 meters, or as a study or work lamp over a table, while also providing a bright directional “task light” beam when more directed light is required.  In a kerosene lantern replacement role it can save users in excess of 30% of their monthly energy expenditures while eliminating fine carbon particle inhalation and preventing injuries from burns due to kerosene spillage or similar accidents.


The features which make it suited to its primary role in the developing world also make it a great light for use for camping, automobile use and as a light you will always have ready in an emergency.  Leave it where the sun shines on it and you will get hours of operation when needed.  With a fully charged original battery the SL-2 will typically operate for 4 to 5 hours on full power, about twice that on its medium power settings and 4 times as long on low power.


The SL-2 uses a high efficiency polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic panel (or PV panel or ‘solar panel’) to charge its batteries.  The charging capability is limited by the size of the panel which would fit on the light, as in the SL-1. Depending on battery state it takes 8 to 10 “sunlight hours” (hours of direct full sunlight) to charge the supplied three 800 mAh NiMH batteries.  Users can choose to fit larger capacity batteries which will take proportionately longer to charge.  In African summer conditions a full charge should be able to be achieved in a single day. In less sunny conditions only a partial charge will be achieved in one day.  A light which is only occasionally used can accumulate a full charge over a number of days.  When the light is in use every night, as it will often be in developing world use, the hours of use per night correspond to daily sunlight hours. The medium and low power modes allow users to reduce lighting levels to allow longer lighting times when charging conditions are poor. On full power users get about 30+ minutes of lighting per sunshine hour. On medium power they get about 1 hour of operation per sunshine hour. And on low power, about 2 hours operation per sunshine hour.  So with 2 to 3 sunshine hours in a day a user can expect 4 to 6 hours of low level but useable light.


When suspended vertically about 1 meter above a 2 x 2 meter (6 foot x 6 foot) table an SL-2 will provide enough light for reading or other work. The light levels are low by grid lighting standards but surprisingly useable once your eyes adapt.  In a smaller area, say 1m x 1m (3 foot x 3 foot) a number of people can still read or work usefully at substantially higher light levels.  In all cases the light illuminates the surface better than a kerosene wick-lantern or hurricane style lantern would.


Unlike most other lights in its class, the light output of the SL-2 remains at the user selected level regardless of the state of battery charge (except as the battery nears the very, very end of its capacity levels will fall off).  To maximize battery life, operate the LEDs correctly and provide constant lighting levels the Sl-2 uses a “boost converter” – essentially an ‘electronic gearbox’, which takes the slowly dropping battery voltage and boosts it to a level suitable for providing a constant operating current for the LEDs. Unlike most LED lights the SL-2 operates its LEDs electrically “in series” so that the same current flows through all operating LEDs. This allows the current and thus the brightness to be closely controlled so that the LEDs are operated in the manner recommended by the manufacturers.


When the battery capacity is almost exhausted the light will first dim, then flash, then the LEDs will turn off completely. A small amount of battery capacity remains and this is used to “keep alive” the control circuitry in a “standby mode”. If a light which turns off due to a low battery condition is then exposed to sunlight it will charge its battery and then, when the sunlight is again removed, turn on again in the same mode as it was in previously. This feature allows the light to be used as an automatic path light, streetlight or nightlight. To achieve regular operation in this mode the light needs to be placed so that it is charged daily. (For 10 hours of night time, a light set on low will operate throughout the night when charged for 5 sunlight hours or more. If there are less than 5 sunlight hours available the light may turn off before dawn but will still usually operate well into the night. If the light is not charged the battery capacity will continue to drop.  When it reaches too low a level the light will reset fully and the light will then draw no battery current but the last mode is no longer remembered.  If a battery is removed or a battery “door” is unscrewed more than about 1/4 turn the light will turn off and the last mode will not be ‘remembered’.


When an operating light is placed in sunlight so that charging starts the LEDs will turn off. The light “remembers” what mode it was in and restarts in this mode when the sunlight is removed. If the light is charged for long enough to fully charge the battery, the charging then stops to protect the battery from over charging.


Battery capacity will decrease with time. Use of user installed larger capacity batteries can be expected to provide longer battery life both because of the extra initial capacity and because the batteries are not “deep cycled” so often in normal use.   Battery capacity is measured in mAh (milliamp hours). Operating time on a fully charged battery is about mAh/200 hours. The initially provided batteries are 800 mAh capacity and will provide 4+ hours of full power operation. If users fit eg 2500 mAh batteries they can expect about 2500/200 = 12+ hours of operation. Charging time is about mAh/80 sunshine hours. So an 800 mAh battery will take 800/80 = 10 sunshine hours to fully charge and a 2500 mAh battery about 2500/80 ~= 30 sunshine hours. On a good day charging will exceed these levels but these are a good guide of what may be typically expected in full sunshine. Obviously it will take several days of full sunlight to fully charge a 2500 mAh battery. Batteries will charge when light levels are lower than full sun, but charging will take longer.  Charging starts with about 6% sunlight and increases approximately linearly with increasing light levels.  A very bright but clouded sky can charge at 25% to 50% of maximum rate.  When charging, to achieve maximum charge rate the panel should be angled to point as directly at the sun as possible.  If leaving in the sun all day, angle the light so that it points at the “arc” in the sky that the sun travels over and so the light is pointing squarely at where the sun will be at midday. (Easier to do than describe).  If desired the light can be moved several times during the day for best effect, but the gains are surprisingly small compared to aligning the light in its best position initially.


Note that batteries MUST be inserted with all the positive ends DOWN (non-flat ends inserted first). The battery doors can be screwed tight, or opened, using a coin

Prism Solar Technologies, Inc.

Prism Solar Technologies, Inc.

180 South Street

Highland, NY 12528

Tel (845) 883-4200

Fax (845) 883-4394



Prism Solar Technologies designs and manufactures products that improve the efficiency of solar energy collection. Their mission is to help grow the solar energy industry through partnerships and cooperation, as a manufacturer of products such as holographic film and solar modules, and as a provider of technological and manufacturing expertise.

Prism Solar Optical Scientist displaying a new solar module design.

Prism Solar’s patented Holographic Planar Concentrator™ (HPC) technology incorporates inexpensive holographic films into solar panel construction, enabling them to generate higher yields from less photovoltaic material.

Our solar module designs incorporate HPC technology, 360-degree collection capability, and other advancements to generate the same yield as conventional solar panels but using 50-75% less silicon.

Prism Solar Optical Scientist displaying a new solar module design.

Prism partners with major solar panel manufacturers to dramatically improve panel efficiency, both through licensing of HPC technology and through sharing of technology and manufacturing expertise.

With facilities in Highland, New York and Tucson, Arizona, Prism is uniquely positioned to work in close partnership with manufacturers across the country.

Entering 2009, Prism is rapidly expanding its production capability to fulfill a substantial pro forma order backlog. Despite the difficult economic environment, Prism is extremely well positioned for growth through this year and well into the foreseeable future.


The Holographic Planar Concentrator™ (HPC) is the key technology in Prism Solar products. The HPC acts as an extremely low-cost concentrator, increasing the energy seen by solar cells by as much as 3X, without mechanical tracking or the need for cooling systems.

HPC consists of holographic imprinted HPC Film, placed in strips along side solar cells. The HPC Film diffracts only wavelengths of sunlight that can be converted to energy by the solar cells. This energy is guided, via total internal reflection in the panel, to the cells.

Schematic of Prism Solar Mono-facial  HPC (Holographic Planar Concentrator)

HPC technology improves solar module efficiency by:

  • collecting direct, low angle, diffuse and reflected light
  • keeping cells near peak efficiency through low light conditions
  • keeping cells near their optimal temperature by allowing unusable wavelengths to pass through
  • generating more kilowatt hours while using less silicon.

Modules using HPC Film do not require mechanical tracking systems or cooling systems. Since they collect over 360 degrees they can be mounted on flat or pitched roofs, as screening walls or even in windows.

HPC technology can be incorporated into existing solar module designs to dramatically improve efficiency and reduce cost. Solar panels based on monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, CdTe, CIGS or virtually any photovoltaic cells can benefit from HPC. The technology integrates easily into existing manufacturing, introducing few new processing steps while re-using almost all existing process equipment.

Prism Solar HPC Solar Modules mounted on a rooftop in Tucson, Arizona

Prism Solar HPC Modules mounted on a rooftop in Tucson, Arizona.

Prism also designs solar modules that maximize the benefits of HPC technology. Prism shares its technological and manufacturing expertise with its partners, helping manufacturers to develop extremely competitive energy solutions in the shortest time possible.



Abengoa Solar

Abengoa Solar

History of Abengoa Solar

Abengoa began its involvement in the development of solar technologies in 1984 with the construction of the Solar Almeria Platform in Spain. The company supplied heliostats and glass facets and worked on the construction of the Cesa Tower. Later, in 1987, Abengoa supplied the facets for the heliostat field of the Weizmann Institute in Israel.
This initial work was undertaken by the Abengoa company, Inabensa as part of its construction department.
In the 1990’s, a new department was created devoted to solar R&D projects. In 1983, Abengoa Solar IST (then Industrial Solar Technology) was founded by Ken May with the purpose of developing trough technology that was economically feasible for commercial and industrial applications.
The 90s: Concetrated Solar Power and Photovoltaic R&D Projects

In 1993, Abengoa built Toledo PV, a 1MW turn-key photovoltaic plant, that is owned by Union Fenosa, Endesa and RWE. The project was built with a subsidy from the European Union.
In 1994, several tower R&D projects were initiated. These projects were partially subsidized by the European Union under Framework Programs IV, V and V. R&D focused on different types of receivers. One of the projects, Solgas, focused on steam generation while the other, Colon Star, focused on electricity generation. Between 1995 and 2000, several R&D projects involving troughs began under by the EU Framework Program s IV and V. The following are highlights of the late 90’s R&D projects.

* The Theseus Project: The Theseus Project studied the feasibility of a parabolic trough plant in Greece.

* Eurotrough: Abengoa Solar was one of the leaders in developing the Eurotrough. The purpose of this project was to develop a parabolic trough with improved optical efficiency, and better manufacturing and assembly processes compared to existing designs.

* DISS: A research project investigating the direct generation of steam in the trough receiver. The research goal was a major technical advance leading to a 30% increase in the efficiency of parabolic trough electricity generation.

In the 1990’s Abengoa Solar also collaborated on dish-Stirling projects involving the production of the Eurodish and Envirodish.

Abengoa Solar worked on concentrated photovoltaic projects. The outcome was the low-concentration dishes (Sevilla PV) now installed at the Sanlucar Solar Platform.

During this time, Abengoa Solar IST worked with some of the world’s best labs and institutions to improve and install solar trough systems for industrial and commercial applications.

2004 to Present: Transition from R&D to Commercial Plant Construction

Based on the economic and technical foundation provided by investments in R&D, Abengoa Solar has transitioned into a pioneer in the construction of commercial CSP and PV plants.

In 2007, Abengoa Solar inaugurated the world’s first commercial solar tower plant, the 11 MW, PS10, and the world’s largest low-concentration PV plant ( Sevilla PV, 1.2 MW). These two plants are part of the Sanlucar Platform, which when complete in 2013 will have a total capacity of 300 MW. Such output can supply the needs of 18,000 households in Seville, while eliminating 600,000 tons of CO2 per year. Besides the Sanlucar Platform, Abengoa Solar is building additional plants in Spain, the USA, Algeria and Morocco.

Abengoa Solar New Technologies (NT) is the R&D company of Abengoa Solar in Spain. Abengoa Solar NT collaborates with institutions such as NREL, Ciemat and Fraunhofer, as well as research universities to develop CSP and PV technology. In addition, Abengoa Solar NT performs internally-funded R&D to develop new proprietary knowledge aimed at improving performance and reducing the cost of solar technology.


Operating Principle

Photovoltaic (PV) cells use semiconductors to produce electricity. The cell absorbs solar radiation, which excites the electrons inside the cell. A semiconductor must have at least two electric fields. When an electron excited by solar energy leaves its electric field, it seeks to return to its original electric field. In order to do so, it must pass through an external circuit, producing electricity. This is referred to as the photovoltaic effect.

PV technology

The following are the primary components of PV technology.

  • Optics: Different optical elements, such as mirrors and Fresnel lenses, are used to concentrate solar radiation onto a point where a PV cell is located.
  • Photovoltaic Cell: The photovoltaic cell is the semiconductor used to produce the photovoltaic effect.
  • Inverter: Since the photovoltaic effect produces direct current (DC), an inverter must be used to change it to alternating current (AC).

Types of Photovoltaic Cells

There are two predominate PV systems on the market. Each has their own pros and cons regarding application, efficiency, and cost.

1 Crystallized Silicon (~200 µm)

A double layer antireflection coating is used to reduce reflection losses on the front surface of crystalline silicon wafers. The wafers are about 400 µm thick to ensure near-complete absorption of all photons having energy greater than the band gap. At the bottom of the wafer, a SiO2 layer is inserted between the wafer and the aluminum backing to achieve reflectance back toward the cell.

  • Single-Crystalline Si
    The semiconductors of most PV cells are made from single-crystalline Si. This requires highly purified silicon to be crystallized into ingots. The ingots are then sliced into thin wafers to make an individual PV cell.
  • Polycrystalline Si
    Polycrystalline Si cells are produced in a way very similar to single-crystalline cells. The primary difference is that silicon of less purity is used for polycrystalline cells. The result is reduced cost and increased ease of production, but a loss of efficiency.
  • Ribbon Si
    Ribbon type PV cells are produced in a similar fashion to single- and polycrystalline silicon cells. The primary difference is that a ribbon is grown from molten silicon instead of an ingot. These cells often have a prismatic rainbow appearance due to their antireflective coating.

Ribbon Si

Thin film (~5 µm):

Thin film semiconductor technology may not be as efficient as traditional semiconductor technology, but its light weight and low cost make it an ideal solution for certain applications.

Amorphous Si

  • Amorphous Si
    Unlike crystalline semiconductors which have a band gap of 1.1 eV, by manipulating the alloy of amorphous silicon semiconductors the band gap energy can be tuned between 1.1 eV and 1.75 eV. Additionally, because they have a much greater absorbance than crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon semiconductors can be much thinner (less than 1 µm). Although amorphous Si cells can be manufactured at low temperatures (200-500 C) and at low costs, a major drawback is their light-induced degradation.

Amorphous Si

3 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Solar Cells

  • 3 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Solar Cells (CIS Cu In Se2)(CIGS Cu(InGa)Se2)
    Due to its relatively high efficiency and low material cost, this technology has emerged as one of the most promising thin films. By adjusting the ratio of In to Ga in CIGS cells, the band gap can be tuned between 1.02 eV and 1.68 eV. The absorption elements of CIGS cells are incredibly high, allowing more than 99% of incoming radiation to be absorbed within the first µm of material. Although this technology has a relatively low material cost, the complicated and capital-intensive manufacturing methods remain as significant drawbacks.

CIGS Solar Cell

Cadmium Telluride

  • Cadmium Telluride (TeCd)
    Cadmium Telluride is another thin film technology that has been available longer and undergone more research than any other thin film technology.
    Although there are diverse manufacturing techniques that can be used to produce the films, many of which are promising for large scale production, the cost and potential health concerns remain as drawbacks for this technology.

Cadmium Telluride

  • Micro Si
    Micro silicon cells are expected to surpass the efficiency and performance of amorphous silicon cells and become a competitor with other thin film technologies. The high efficiency and negligible degradation of Micro Si cells has been widely reported.
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
    Instead of the semiconducting materials used in most cells, TiD cells use a dye-impregnated layer of titanium dioxide to generate voltage. Because of their relatively low cost, TiO technology has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of solar cells.
Photovoltaic Concentration

Offers the best efficiency but requires high direct concentration, and is therefore only viable in some geographies.

Fresnel point focus

  • Fresnel point focus (High concentration-GaAs) (GC~500)
    Fresnel point lenses concentrate direct solar radiation onto a focal point. Since Fresnel lens can provide concentration ratios of up to 500, the necessary surface area for PV cells is greatly reduced. Since fewer PV cells are needed, it is possible to use high quality, more expensive materials like Gallium Arsenide for the semiconductors.
    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction semiconductors: Multi-junction semiconductors is a relatively new technology that offers significantly higher efficiencies than traditional, single-junction semiconductors. Each electrical field junction within a semiconductor has only one band gap energy. Incoming solar radiation will either have less energy than the band gap (and therefore will not be used), more energy than the band gap (and therefore some energy will be wasted), or the exact energy as the band gap. By having multiple junctions, GaAs semiconductors are able to utilize more energy from the incoming solar radiation.
  • Fresnel line focus (medium concentration-Si) (GC<500)
    Fresnel line lenses are flat cylindrical lenses that condense or diffuse light in a linear direction. This technology has lower concentration ratios than Fresnel point lenses, so high efficiency silicon semiconductors are used instead of expensive GaAs semiconductors.
  • Low concentration (2-4 times)
    Low concentration (2-4 times) Low concentration technology uses mirrors instead of lenses to concentrate solar radiation. Since the solar radiation is much less condensed, conventional silicon semiconductors are often used because of their affordability.

Konarka Technologies, Inc.

Konarka Technologies, Inc
116 John Street
Suite 12, 3rd Floor
Lowell, MA 01852 USA

P: +1 978-569-1400
F: +1 978-569-1402


Konarka is developing and advancing nano-enabled polymer photovoltaic materials that are lightweight, flexible and more versatile than traditional solar materials.

Using proprietary materials developed by our world-class technical team and low cost manufacturing processes, Konarka scientists and engineers have created an entirely unique solar material with attributes unlike any existing product. This new breed of coatable, flexible, plastic photovoltaics can be used in a wide range of applications where traditional photovoltaics cannot compete. Konarka’s technical advances will expand the relevance of solar technology across product lines, as well as across economic divides, providing low cost power wherever it is needed.

Konarka currently employs over 70 staff in the US, Europe, and Asia , with global headquarters in Lowell, Massachusetts, and European operations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and a presence in Asia.


Konarka’s Power Plastic® is made using low cost organic materials (organic photovoltaics, or OPV). Such 3rd generation technologies are rapidly emerging to displace 1st and 2nd generation technologies by overcoming their technical limitations and delivering a truly cost-effective renewable power solution.

1st Generation

Crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology was first developed more than 50 years ago at Bell Labs in New Jersey based on silicon wafers, and is known as 1st generation solar technology. Silicon-based technology is technically proven and reliable, and has succeeded in achieving market penetration, primarily in off-grid remote areas and in grid-connected applications where sufficient subsidies are available to offset its high cost. There are several inherent limitations to this 1st generation, however. Silicon wafers are fragile, making processing difficult and limiting potential applications. The process is very labor and energy intensive, and manufacturing plant capital costs are high, limiting scale-up potential. And because materials represent more than 60% of manufacturing costs and silicon supply is finite, the long term potential for cost reduction is insufficient to deliver broadly affordable energy.

2nd Generation

To simplify manufacturing and reduce costs, a 2nd generation known as thin film technologies was developed. These technologies are typically made by depositing a thin layer of photo-active material onto glass or a flexible substrate, including metal foils, and they commonly use amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), or cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the semiconductor. Thin film PV is less subject to breakage when manufactured on a flexible foil. However, the promise of low cost power has not been realized, and efficiency remains lower than that of 1st generation solar. Some questions also remain about the toxic legacy of the materials, both in manufacturing and at the end of life.

3rd Generation

It has been estimated that 3rd generation solar technologies will achieve higher efficiencies and lower costs than 1st or 2nd generation technologies (Green, M., Third Generation Photovoltaics, Advanced Solar Energy Conversion). Today, the 3rd generation approaches being investigated include dye-sensitized titania solar cells, organic photovoltaics, tandem cells, and materials that generate multiple electron-hole pairs. To maximize performance, Konarka scientists have been involved in research efforts in all of these areas, including novel combinations of these approaches.


Konarka Power Plastic is a photovoltaic material that captures both indoor and outdoor light and converts it into direct current (DC) electrical energy. This energy can be used immediately, stored for later use, or converted to other forms. Power Plastic can be applied to a limitless number of potential applications – from microelectronics to portable power, remote power and building-integrated applications.

They will soon be announcing the availability of their seven standard products. These products include Konarka Power Plastic panels ranging from their KT 25 (0.25W) to their KT 3000 (26W), perfect for many portable and remote power applications.

KT 3000 (26 Watt–16 Volt)

Measuring 2384mm x 652mm (93.8″ x 25.6″) enables remote power generation for battery charging and communication devices.

KT 1500 (12 Watt–16 Volt)

Measuring 1104mm x 652mm (43.5″ x 25.6″) is designed for remote power applications requiring 12 volts of power.

KT 800 (8 Watt–8 Volt/1-Amp)

Measuring 1530mm x 352mm (60.2″ x 13.8″) is ideal for charging batteries for portable mobile phone-sized electronic devices. Connect two panels in series for charging 12-volt batteries to power laptop-sized devices.

KT 500 (5 Watt–8 Volt)

Measuring 890mm x 352mm (35.1″ x 13.8″) can harness enough power to charge portable batteries, mobile phones, PDA’s and other small devices.

KT 200 (2 Watt–8 Volt)

Measuring 464mm x 352mm (18.3″ x 13.8″) can generate enough power to charge portable batteries.

KT 50 (0.5 Watt–4 Volt)

Measuring 194mm x 172mm (7.6″ x 6.8″) can be affixed to almost any surface for charging microelectronics and sensors.

KT 25 (0.25 Watt–4 Volt)

Measuring 117mm x 172mm (4.6″ x 6.8″) can be affixed to almost any surface for charging microelectronics and sensors.

SolFocus Inc.

SolFocus Inc.



SolFocus, Inc.

510 Logue Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone: +1.650.623.7100
Fax: +1.650.623.7101


SolFocus Europe, Inc.

María de Molina 39 7° Izq.
28006 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +

SolFocus has developed leading concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology which combines high-efficiency solar cells (approaching 40%) and advanced optics to provide solar energy solutions which are scalable, dependable and capable of delivering on the promise of clean, low-cost, renewable energy.

The SolFocus mission is to enable solar energy generation at a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) competitive with traditional fossil fuel sources. To achieve this goal, SolFocus has developed leading concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology which combines high-efficiency solar cells (approaching 40%) and advanced optics to provide solar energy solutions which are scalable, dependable and capable of delivering on the promise of clean, low-cost, renewable energy. SolFocus is headquartered in Mountain View, California with European operations headquartered in Madrid, Spain, and manufacturing in Mesa, Arizona as well as with manufacturing partners in India and China.


SolFocus Technology Highlights

By concentrating sunlight using innovative optics onto a small area of high-efficiency solar cell material, SolFocus systems dramatically reduce the amount of expensive and often supply-constrained solar material used in the system. Learn more about SolFocus technology by selecting the components below.

Sol Focus CPV Sytems

CPV Power Unit

CPV Power Unit

Solfocus has developed an innovative reflective optic system which includes a primary mirror to capture sunlight and secondary mirror and non-imaging optic to concentrate it at 500 suns onto high-efficiency III-V solar cells.

CPV Power Unit

  • All-glass optics for durability
  • Low optical losses for high efficiency
  • Wide acceptance angle for high yield and lower cost
  • Designed to avoid chromatic aberrations and cell mismatching
  • High efficiency cells greater than 38% efficiency compared to 13% to 19% efficiency for silicon PV cells
  • 1cm2 cell per unit results in use of 1/1000th the active PV material
  • Robust cell design, originally designed for the demanding environment of satellites in space
  • High performance at high temperatures – not impacted by temperature degradation as are silicon PV cells

CPV Panel

CPV Panel

The CPV Power units are integrated into a robust panel design which is optimized for high efficiency, high reliability, and field durability. The panels are TUV certified and CEC listed.

CPV Panel

  • Industry-leading efficiency and power output
  • TUV certified, CEC listed
  • Power output rated at operational conditions
  • High energy output sustained at high temperatures
  • Utilize field-proven materials for high reliability and field durability
  • 95% glass and aluminum components for high recyclability
  • Glass components immune to long-term UV degradation
  • Panels fully enclosed with no exposed mirrors
  • Passive cooling system for high reliability and low cost

CPV System

CPV System

SolFocus CPV systems with their industry-leading efficiency can be deployed from small to large-scale installations, providing high energy output and maximum energy production per area of land.

CPV System

  • Maintains high energy output at high temperatures
  • Maximizes energy production per acre/hectare to reduce land use
  • Systems scalable from hundreds of kilowatts to 50+ megawatt installations
  • Allows dual-use of land
  • Robust, industrialized design for field durability and system reliability
  • High-volume manufacturing not impacted by silicon supply constraints

Dual-Axis Tracker

Dual-Axis Tracker

SolFocus CPV panels are integrated with dual axis trackers and precise tracker control systems which are optimized for the SolFocus panels, maintaining high energy output throughout the day.

Dual-Axis Tracker

  • SolFocus designed trackers are optimized for SolFocus panels and integrated into a complete system
  • Engineered for optimum stiffness and provide tracking accuracy of 0.1 degree
  • Extended tracking range for all locations
  • Ephemeris-based open-loop tracking
  • Self-calibration using proprietary SolFocus control system
  • Wind and night stow positions for safety and reliability
  • System monitoring software calibrates pointing accuracy
  • Remote system management reduces onsite maintenance

Acciona Energy

 Acciona Energy

In 19 countries

The Energy Division of ACCIONA has over 200 companies in 19 countries.

The corporate purpose of most of them is the development of wind parks and the production of electricity from them. Within the wind power sector the group also has manufacturing companies that produce wind turbines.

ACCIONA Energy also has companies that operate in the thermolectric field (biomass and solar thermoelectric), solar (photovoltaic and thermal), biofuels and others.


World leader in renewables

ACCIONA Energía is a world leader in the renewables sector. The company has taken on the mission of demonstrating the technical and economic viability of a new energy model on the basis of criteria of sustainability.

ACCIONA Energía is present in the main clean energies, in line with their different levels of maturity and profitability. It focuses its activities on wind power, in which it is the largest developer and constructor of windparks in the world.

It is also present in other electric power generation technologies based on renewable energy sources -biomass, small hydro and solar-, and also in the manufacture of wind turbines (designed in-house) and the production and marketing of biofuels. It also has assets in the field of cogeneration.

ACCIONA Energía is currently carrying out research projects to produce hydrogen from wind power, to manufacture more efficient wind turbines and to optimize the production of biofuels.

The company has a workforce of over 1,000 people, one of the biggest and most highly qualified in the clean energies field.

The solidity of a great group

ACCIONA Energía is the energy division of ACCIONA, a leading group in infrastructures and services aimed at sustainable development and social welfare.

ACCIONA is a homogeneous and integrated business group with a focus on operations with high added value that enable it to create synergies and make profitable investments in strategic sectors.


Wind energy

A global leader in wind energy

ACCIONA Energy focuses its activity on wind energy, a field in which it has so far installed 5,577 MW at 30 September 2008. It has built 200 windparks for itself and other companies with over 5,500 turbines, making it the world leader in the development and construction of windparks. At the same time, it has 900 MW under construction and around 15,000 MW in development.

The wind power installed by ACCIONA Energy in Spain amounts to 4,471 MW.

On all five continents

As well as Spain, there are windparks installed by ACCIONA in the United States, Canada, Germany, Australia, Italy, Greece, Hungary, France, India, Portugal, South Korea, Mexico and Morocco. Of these, 142 windparks (4,105 MW) are owned by the Group, with an attributable capacity of 3,285 MW. The 58 windparks built for other companies account for 1,472 MW.

ACCIONA is currently building windparks in most of the above mentioned countries.

Current projects are being carried out in the United Kingdom, Croacia, Poland and Slovenia.


In 2007, ACCIONA Energy produced a total of 7,494 GWh of wind energy, of which 6,316 GWh were produced in Spain and 1,178 GWh in other countries. Attributable wind energy generation reached 5,570 GWh.

In the first nine months of 2008, the wind energy production was 5,840 GWh (4,784 GWh in Spain and 1,056 GWh in other countries). The attributable wind energy generation was 4,620 GWh.

Mini hydro

19 small hydro plants in operation

ACCIONA Energy has 19 small hydro power plants located in different river basins in Navarre (Spain). Their total installed capacity is 58.79 MW.

In 2007 hydroelectric production from these plants reached 193 million kilowatt-hours. Until September 2008, the power output was 182 GWh.

ACCIONA also handles the operation and maintenance of another six hidroelectrical plants.


Three plants in operation and seven under development

ACCIONA Energy is present in the field of biomass with three plants that total 33 MW of installed capacity. They produced around 240 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) a year.

The largest is a 25 MW cereal straw-fired plant in Sangüesa (Navarre), a pioneering facility in southern Europe in the exploitation of this source of renewable energy. Its average annual output is around 200 million kWh.

In addition to the Sangüesa plant, ACCIONA Energy has biomass plants in Talosa (province of Soria) and Pinasa (Cuenca), each one with 4 MW capacity.

New projects

The company is giving a boost to the biomass business in Spain. It plans to install seven new plants in different Spanish regions, which will be entering into operation between 2010 and 2012. They total 110 MW of capacity, 306 million euros investment and an estimated annual output of 880 million kWh. These facilities will represent 175 direct and 515 indirect new jobs, mainly devoted to primary sector.

In the region of Castilla y León, it is developing three new plants summing 55 MW of installed capacity and represent an investment of 140 million euros. The three facilities -located in Almazán (Soria) -15 MW-, Briviesca (Burgos) -15 MW- and Valencia de don Juan (León) -25 MW- will be participated by the Regional Energy Board (EREN).

Altogether the three plants will produce around 440 million kWh a year, equivalent to the demand of 180,000 homes. They will also create 300 jobs and will avoid the emission of 423,000 tonnes of CO2.

The plants planned in Castilla-La Mancha are located in Mohorte (Cuenca) and Alcázar de San Juan (Ciudad Real), with a total investment of 86 M€.

ACCIONA also projects to install a 15 MW biomass plant in Miajadas (Cáceres) and a 10 MW one in Utiel (Valencia)

Solar energy

Leaders in solar energy

ACCIONA works with all three solar technologies – concentrating solar power (CSP), photovoltaic and solar hot water – amounting to a total owned capacity of 194 MW, of which 113 MW are owned by the company.

The company has so far installed 81.32 MW for other companies, of which 66.18 MW are photovoltaic, 14.14 MW are solar heating and 1 MW are CSP.

Technology Owned capacity Capacity for other companies Total capacity
CSP 64.00 1 65.00
Hot water 0.72 14.14 14.86

The largest concentrating solar power plant in 17 years

In June 2007, in the state of Nevada (USA), ACCIONA connected to the grid the the largest CSP facility of its type in the world in the last 17 years: the 64 MW Nevada Solar One plant. The company has a 97.7% stake in the facility, which is operational since June 2007.

ACCIONA has various CSP plants under development in Spain – all of which have a capacity of 50 MW – and is also involved in major projects in the south-western United States.

The leading developer of photovoltaic energy in Spain

The photovoltaic capacity installed by ACCIONA at 30 September 2008 amounts to 114.44 MW. Through its subsidiary ACCIONA Solar, the Group has developed the concept of “huertas solares” (solar gardens), a system that has allowed more than 3.500 people to become owners of photovoltaic installations.

The “huertas solares” installed by the company – 18 in total – amount to a capacity of 61,5 MW and are located in diferent Spanish regions.

ACCIONA is currently building what will be the biggest solar photovoltaic plant in the world in Moura (Portugal), with a capacity of 46 MW. It is expected to be fully grid-connected by December 2008.

Solar hot water

In the field of thermal solar energy (solar hot water), ACCIONA Solar has installed 14 MW to date, virtually all of which has been for other companies.

The company is the leader in the installation of this technology in Spain.

Energy efficient building

ACCIONA is also involved in the field of energy efficient buildings, incorporating solar technology as much as possible.

The most notable example of this is ACCIONA Solar’s head office, a building which consumes 52% less energy than a conventional building of the same characteristics, thanks to the use of numerous measures for using energy efficiently and making energy savings, covering 48% of its needs from photovoltaic solar power – electricity; thermal solar power – climate control; and biodiesel.

This means that the office is classified as a “zero emissions” building, as it can cover its energy requirements without emitting CO2.


In biodiesel and bioethanol

ACCIONA Energy works in the area of biofuels for transport, a sector which represents over 30% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the OCDE countries and 50% of the global oil demand (67% in the European Union).

The company has already presence in the field of biodiesel, with a 70,000-tonnes production plant in Navarra, and a 200,000-tonnes one under construction in Bilbao. It also owns a 26,000-tonnes bioethanol plant in Castilla-La Mancha (central Spain).

The European Commission has set the objective of a 5.75% quota for biofuels in road transport consumption by 2010. Spain has adopted that goal by establishing a 5.83% quota in the Plan for Renewable Energies, approved by the Government in 2005. The EU plans to increase that goal up to 10% in 2020.

Wind turbines

ACCIONA Windpower, a global supplier

ACCIONA Windpower, is the ACCIONA’s subsidiary company that works on the design, manufacture, field assembly and marketing of wind turbines,  based on the experience of the group to which it belongs in the operation and maintenance of wind power facilities worldwide. It produces 1,500 kW and 3,000 kW wind turbines which have been designed from the point of view of the wind farm operator interested in achieving the best performance throughout the working life of the machine.In 2007 ACCIONA Windpower produced 582 turbines (873 MW). This figure is higher than the company’s production in the three previous years and duplicates the 2006 figure (426 MW), thus consolidating its position in the world ranking of major wind turbine manufacturers. The company expects to finish this year with over 1,500 MW of new capacity installed.

For years after having launched the AW-1500, one of the most reliable wind turbines in the market of the megawatt segment, ACCIONA Windpower introduced the new AW-3000 at Windpower 2008 Exhibition in Houston (Texas, USA) last June. It is based on the same concept of strong, reliable and durable wind turbine as its successful predecessor and extent our capacity to meet the rising market expectations.

Four wind turbine assembly plants

ACCIONA Windpower has four wind turbine manufacturing facilities, two in Spain, one in China and one in the USA. Their total annual production capacity is 2,625 MW.

ACCIONA Windpower also has an assembly plant for hubs and other components in Toledo (Spain) and will build a blade production plant in Navarre (Spain) in 2008; its opening is planned for the end of the same year.

Turbines in wind parks in twelve countries

By the end of 2008 ACCIONA Windpower turbines will have been installed in wind parks in twelve countries: Spain, the US, Canada, Mexico, Australia, China, South Korea, Italy, Greece, France, the UK and Poland.

A good part of these projects have been (or will be) carried out by other companies with which ACCIONA Windpower has signed contracts for the supply of turbines. This modality will increase over the next few years.

Working on design since 1997

The technology developed by ACCIONA Windpower is the result of more than fourteen years of knowledge accumulated by one of the most technical teams in the world on the operation and maintenance of wind parks.

The ACCIONA Group’s experience and acumen gained from the management of wind parks containing thousands of wind turbines of different technologies installed in various countries has been the cornerstone to the succesful development of our technology.

Before launching series production of the AW 1500 the company installed three prototypes of a 1300 kW in 2000-2002, followed by twenty units of the same model in a wind park in Navarre.

Work on the series production of the 1.5 MW machine started in 2004. To date, over 2,000 units have been assemblied.

LDK Solar Co., Ltd.

Factory:Hi – Tech industrial Park Xinyu Jiangxi P. R. C.
E-mail: ;

LDK  Solar USA,Inc.
1290 Oakmead Parkway ,Suite 306
Sunnyvale ,   CA 94085   USA
TEL: +1-408-245-0858
Fax: +1-408 245 8802


As the worldwide demand for electricity increases and the historical reliance on fossil fuels is being challenged by increasing environmental awareness, the focus has turned to renewable energy sources. As a reliable and versatile form of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to become a dominant energy source. According to market research, PV is expected to account for over 50% of the world’s total electricity generated by renewable energy sources by 2070.

LDK Solar is a pure-play manufacturer dedicated solely to the design, development, manufacturing and distribution of multicrystalline solar wafers. Wafers are the principal raw material used to produce solar cells, which are devices capable of converting sunlight into electricity. Their manufacturing process is based on proprietary production processes utilizing both virgin and recyclable polysilicon for ingot production. Through this proprietary process, they are able to offer their global solar cell and module manufacturer customers considerable cost advantages while maintaining quality and performance. LDK Solars also provides wafering services to both multicrystalline and monocrystalline solar cell and module manufacturers.

LDK Solar made their first commercial shipment of solar wafers in April 2006 and have quickly become one of the leading manufacturers in the industry, with their annual production capacity expected to increase to 400 megawatts, or MW by the end of 2007 from 215 MW as of March 31, 2007.

Their headquarters and their large scale, state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities are located in Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Xinyu city, Jiangxi province in the People’s Republic of China.


LDK Solar manufactures and sells multicrystalline solar wafers. They currently produce and sell multicrystalline wafers in two principal sizes of 125 by 125 mm and 156 by 156 mm, with thicknesses from 180 and 240 microns.

LDK also provides wafering services to both monocrystalline and multicrystalline solar cell and module manufactures, which provide us their own ingots to be sliced. They charge a fee based on the number of wafers to be sliced.

The main technological process of multi-crystalline wafers contains: ingot and wire saw.

Strategic relationships with world class PV equipment manufacturers GT
Solar(USA) HCT (Switzerland), support LDK on equipment, process and
technology.Cooperate with Shanghai Jiaotong University formed “Shanghai
Jiaotong University-LDK Solar R&D Lab” engages in industry leading or LDK
R&D projects, endeavor together toreach state-level lab, supply technology
support for LDK to develop into a world class wafer manufacture.
Cooperate with Nanchang University formed “Nanchang University-LDK
Solar Research Center”, research in projects such as wafer purification,
crystallization improvement, and wire breakage reduction etc.

        1、Muticrystalline DSS capacity : 275kg/ingot (standard)
2、Ingot size: 690mm(L)× 690mm(W)×240mm(H)

Multi-crystalline wafer

Conductivity type:P
Dimension: 103×103±0.5mm ,125×125±0.5mm,150×150±0.5mm,156×156±0.5mm,210×210±0.5mm
Lifetime: ≥2μs
Oxygen concentration ≤ 1×1018atom/cm3
Carbon concentration ≤ 5×1016atom/cm3
Thickness:200μm± 20μm, 220μm± 20μm,240μm± 20μm
TTV:≤ 50 μm
BOW:≤ 30 μm
Saw mark:≤ 10 μm
Chips:L≤1mm, D≤1mm,Max. 2 places
Crack and pinhole: no cracks and pin holes visible with the naked eyes

Mono-crystalline wafer

Lifetime: ≥10μs
BOW:≤35 μm
Resistivity: 0.5—3,3—6,6—10Ω·cm
Oxygen concentration ≤ 1×1018atom/cm3
Carbon concentration ≤ 5×1016atom/cm3
Dimension: 125mmX125mm±0.5mm ,156mmX156mm±0.5mm
Thickness: 200μm ,220μm, 240μm(±20μm)
TTV:≤ 50 μm
Squareness Angle Variety : <0.6mm
Squareness Angle: 90°±0.25°
Crystal direction : ≤100≥

Ausra, Inc.

Ausra, Inc.

Ausra, Inc.
2585 East Bayshore Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94303

phone: 650.424.9300
fax: 650.494.3893

General Information: info@ausra.comAbout
Ausra develops and deploys utility-scale solar technologies to serve global electricity needs in a dependable, market competitive, environmentally responsible manner.

Amid growing public demand for clean energy, Ausra offers solar thermal electric power stations that provide large-scale low-cost, reliable, renewable energy. Unlike competing approaches, Ausra’s technology is proven, easily manufactured and installed, and scalable to high volume.

Ausra’s zero-carbon power plants generate electricity at current market prices for fossil-fired power without the emissions caused by burning fuels. Solar concentrators boil water with focused sunlight, generating high-pressure steam that drives conventional turbine generators. Low-cost thermal energy storage systems now under development by Ausra will allow solar electric power to be generated on demand, day and night.

Electric utilities in the U.S. and worldwide are under growing pressure to expand their deliveries of clean, renewable power. The Ausra team brings together expertise in solar energy research, engineering, manufacturing, power project development and finance to address this need. The company designs, manufactures and deploys low-cost, large-scale, solar electric power stations, selling electric power at prices competitive with today’s fossil-fired generation.

Ausra’s core technology, the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) solar collector and steam generation system, was originally conceived in the early 1990s at Sydney University. It was first commercialized by Solar Heat and Power Pty Ltd. in 2004 in Australia and is now being refined and built at large scale by Ausra around the world.

CLFR technology has significant advantages in cost, scalability and emissions profile. Ausra develops large-scale power projects incorporating CLFR solar fields, and helps utilities generate clean energy for millions of customers.

Innovation in Action

  • Research and Development: Ausra’s core group of chemists, physicists and engineers are working on optics, coatings, materials and manufacturing processes to improve the performance and reduce the cost of solar collector systems, thermal energy storage systems and power plant cooling systems. Their ongoing refinements to Ausra’s technology will continue to reduce costs and extend Ausra’s leadership in these fields.
  • Engineering: Ausra’s engineering managers and engineers come from a variety of disciplines across the electric power industry. The team optimizes Ausra’s existing technologies for production, and brings new technologies from R&D into volume manufacturing. Ausra partners with leading consulting engineering firms to test and verify energy production and lifecycle performance of its plants.
  • Manufacturing: Ausra’s approach to solar plant production emphasizes manufacturing facilities located near power plants, low-cost commodity materials (steel, glass and concrete), and mass produced components. Ausra operates its own production facilities for the manufacture of its solar collectors to deliver the highest performance at lowest possible system costs.
  • Project Management: Ausra draws experts from many sectors of the energy industry to manage land permits, project finance and power purchase agreements. The team has a strong track record of success with multiple generations of technologies.

Solar Thermal Electric Power is Energy Independence and Security
We have a secure source of electric power with guaranteed stable prices, no emissions, and the ability to scale to meet all our needs. With a 20-year track record of over 99 percent availability, solar thermal electric power has proven to be a dependable source of electric power for America’s growing energy needs. Solar power is entirely domestically produced, is protected against fuel price and availability fluctuations, and is secure against future costs of carbon emissions.

Ausra’s innovations in collector design dramatically reduce the cost of solar thermal generation equipment and bring solar

power to prices directly competitive with fossil fuel power.

Using Ausra’s current solar technologies, all U.S. electric power, day and night, can be generated using a land area smaller than 92 by 92 miles.

Ausra’s business will benefit local economies by bringing “green collar” manufacturing and operating jobs to rural communities. By delivering clean, reliable energy at market-competitive prices, Ausra will help meet America’s growing needs for climate-friendly power while maintaining consumer-friendly prices.



Corporate Solar Solutions Center
2660 Waiwai Loop
Honolulu, Hawaii 96819
US Toll Free: (866) 767-6491, (866-Sopogy1)
International Phone: (808) 237-2409
FAX: (808) 356-0565

West Coast Solar Solutions Center
1735 Technology Drive, Suite 400
San Jose, California 95110
US Toll Free: (866) 767-6491, (866-Sopogy1)
FAX: (408) 351-8883

Southwest USA Solar Solutions Center
2942 N 24th Street, Suite 114
Phoenix, AZ 85016
US Toll Free: (866) 767-6491, (866-Sopogy1)
FAX: (602) 391-2000What They Do
Sopogy is a leader in MicroCSP technologies that bring the economics of proven large scale Concentrating Power Systems (CSP) to the distributed generation markets. MicroCSP technologies are used to create Process Heat, Solar Air Conditioning or Electrical Power. For more information on the technology visit our How It Works page.


Originally founded in 2002 at the Energy Laboratories an energy concept incubator of Energy Industries, Sopogy is focused at bringing a new renewable energy technology to the market. The future is clean power, green systems and LEED™ smart buildings. The Sopogy energy system is enabling the solar energy revolution and for our customers “every day is a Sopogy day™”.

Sopogy is dedicated to helping their customers achieve their renewable energy goals. Using their solar energy systems to produce electricity, process heat or solar A/C we maximize energy production while minimizing costs.

Sopogy’s mission is to invent, manufacture and sell the world’s most innovative and affordable solar collectors. Their company strives to become part of the solution to global problems including climate change, energy security and sustainability.


* Establish a global solar energy brand.
* Make solar energy competitive to fossil fuel energy worldwide.
* Achieve entrepreneurial success.
* Create solar solutions that improve the quality of life for all human kind.
* Bring order and simplicity to the chaos which is the current solar power business.


Sopogy MicroCSP technologies present a new and unique approach to harnessing the power of the sun.
Sopogy MicroCSP