Month: October 2008

APowerCap Technologies, LLC

541 Jefferson Ave. Suite 100
Redwood City, CA  94063, USA
Tel: +1 650 206 2323

Eastern Europe
21, Lobanovskoho Str, block 6,
Chaiki, Kiev-Svyatoshin District, Kyiv Region, 08130, Ukraine
Tel: +(380)44 569 5678
Fax: +(380)44 569 5679


APowerCap Technologies, LLC (APCT) is a company backed by a pioneering Ukrainian venture capital firm TechInvest. Incorporated in the U.S. in 2006, APCT has R&D and production facilities in Kyiv, Ukraine. APCT develops breakthrough ultracapacitor-based power modules for wide range of applications.

APCT technologies will bring new level of efficiency to dozens of verticals, including vehicles (hybrid, PHEV, electro), consumer electronics, telecommunications, energy generation, quality power supply and others.

APowerCap development team has been conducting research in the field of ultracapacitors for more than 17 years. R&D on ultracapacitors began within the framework of a special project of the Ministry of Electronics of the former Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, members of the R&D team established a company, which offered contract R&D services for international clients in ultracapacitor technology. Among its clients were Skeleton Technologies (former SuperFarad), Idaho National Laboratory, Ener1, Inc.

In 2005, ultracapacitor technology project became a finalist of Ukrainian High-Tech Competition, and successfully presented the technology to international VC investors at SVOD Technology conference in Silicon Valley. In 2006, APowerCap Technologies was established and received seed investment from TechInvest.

APCT R&D team has a number of Ukrainian and Russian patents on ultracapacitors technology and ultracapacitor parts, which were transferred to APCT. Based on the know-how accumulated by the R&D team, APCT has filed two US patents.

Ultracapacitor prototypes, developed by APCT, have been tested by leading industry experts, including:

  • ABB Research Center (Sweden, 1996-1997)
  • INEEL (1997-1998)
  • ITS, Davis, CA (1997-2006)

Test results of APCT ultracapacitor prototypes of 55 F, were highly appreciated by participants of the 16th International Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors & Hybrid Energy Storage Devices in 2006. According to Dr. Burke, a recognized expert in ultracapacitors and relative technologies, APCT ultracapacitors have superior performance comparing with other developers. «The RC time constant of the APowerCap cell is significantly lower and its peak power is considerably higher than any ultracapacitor previously tested from other developers», said Andrew Burke.

Tests have demonstrated that APCT has achieved the best results in the world in ultracapacitor performance and is able to achieve best cost advantage.


Key Features:

  • novel organic electrolytes based on alkylamino phosphonium or alkylammonium salts and polar aprotic solvents
  • low-cost porous carbons as electrode materials and technology for purification of these carbons
  • special technique for electrode/electrolyte preparation together with some peculiarity of SC assembling and pre-starting (aging) procedure
  • novel methods to significantly reduce ultracap inner resistance

Over the past decade or two ultracapacitors force their way to the market through the strong competition from advanced batteries. Today NiMH and in particular Li-ion batteries demonstrate the power density as high as 0.6-1 kW/kg (though at the expense of lower energy density, shorter cycle life and overheating). Therefore, to become competitive, ultracapacitors must demonstrate the power density much higher than 1 kW/kg providing at the same time the long cycle life. The best of our competitors and ultracapacitor manufacturers demonstrate 1-3 kW/kg at 95% efficiency, while our prototypes demonstrate 5-6 kW/kg.

Fig. 1  Comparison of APCT ultracapacitor power and energy density with major competitors:

Fig. 2  Ragone plot based on ITS test results presented at the Advanced Capacitor World Summit, San Diego in July 2008:

Fig. 3  Ragone plot (normalized) based on ITS test results presented at the Advanced Capacitor World Summit, San Diego in July 2008:

Another obstacle for ultracapacitors on the path to the market is cost of carbon. Nanoporous carbon, which is used as electrode material in supercapacitors, is rather expensive, and it typically contributes about 35% to the total cost. APCT has utilized carbon, which is 4 times cheaper than that used by its major competitors.

APCT middle and large devices can demonstrate the same performance being 2 or 3 times smaller (due to much higher power density), this means that APCT uses 2-3 times less material than competitors.
Currently, APCT research team is focused on achieving the following:

  • to reduce ESR, in particular, to reduce the contact resistance at C/Al interface due to modification of Al current collector
  • to modify some of the natural carbonaceous materials in order to produce low-cost nanoporous carbon electrodes
  • to best match the electrode nanoporous texture with ion size in organic electrolytes
  • to optimize the ratio between nanopores and ion transport channels in the electrode texture
  • to optimize the electrode thickness
  • to protect the Al current collector from anode corrosion
  • to develop special fire retardant agents to assure safety


APowerCap offers ultracapacitors that have been designed using our proprietary breakthrough ultracapacitor technology. This unique technology allowed us to reach values of specific power that exceed 5 kW/kg at a 95% efficiency that corresponds to more than 20 kW/kg at a 50%, keeping the energy density within 1.5-4.5 Wh/kg despite the use of low-cost nanoporous carbon.

Our major goal is to satisfy global market requirements for ultracapacitors in both performance and price. We offer products for prices that at least 20% lower, compared to products with similar voltage/capacitance rates already available on the market.

APowerCap has designed ultracapacitors with outstanding performance that have been recognized by the leading industry experts to be the best in the world in terms of power density. APowerCap ultracapacitors can be used for a wide range of applications, including consumer electronics, power quality systems, automotive industry and many others. Feel free to contact us to discuss usage of our ultracapacitors in your application.

APCT products consists of two major categories:

Pic.1 Single ultracapacitor cells in hard Al enclosure in the range of 480F to 550F, 2.7V

Pic.2 Single ultracapacitor cells in soft Al enclosure in the range of 4F to 550F, 2.7V

On the basis of these single ultracapacitor elements, APCT may develop and produce wide product range of high quality modules, with different voltages and capacitance values. Our best modules are made with this type of cell. They are the most efficient, perform the best in most conditions, and last the longest.

APCT’s R&D team may also produce preproduction pilot samples as a single element or modules;

We pride ourselves on a unique combination of high quality, competitive technology innovation, excellent technical knowledge and outstanding customer service.

Quality to us is paramount! We only deal with quality assured manufacturers of the raw materials and our quality commitment permeates our working practices at every level.

LDK Solar Co., Ltd.

Factory:Hi – Tech industrial Park Xinyu Jiangxi P. R. C.
E-mail: ;

LDK  Solar USA,Inc.
1290 Oakmead Parkway ,Suite 306
Sunnyvale ,   CA 94085   USA
TEL: +1-408-245-0858
Fax: +1-408 245 8802


As the worldwide demand for electricity increases and the historical reliance on fossil fuels is being challenged by increasing environmental awareness, the focus has turned to renewable energy sources. As a reliable and versatile form of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to become a dominant energy source. According to market research, PV is expected to account for over 50% of the world’s total electricity generated by renewable energy sources by 2070.

LDK Solar is a pure-play manufacturer dedicated solely to the design, development, manufacturing and distribution of multicrystalline solar wafers. Wafers are the principal raw material used to produce solar cells, which are devices capable of converting sunlight into electricity. Their manufacturing process is based on proprietary production processes utilizing both virgin and recyclable polysilicon for ingot production. Through this proprietary process, they are able to offer their global solar cell and module manufacturer customers considerable cost advantages while maintaining quality and performance. LDK Solars also provides wafering services to both multicrystalline and monocrystalline solar cell and module manufacturers.

LDK Solar made their first commercial shipment of solar wafers in April 2006 and have quickly become one of the leading manufacturers in the industry, with their annual production capacity expected to increase to 400 megawatts, or MW by the end of 2007 from 215 MW as of March 31, 2007.

Their headquarters and their large scale, state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities are located in Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Xinyu city, Jiangxi province in the People’s Republic of China.


LDK Solar manufactures and sells multicrystalline solar wafers. They currently produce and sell multicrystalline wafers in two principal sizes of 125 by 125 mm and 156 by 156 mm, with thicknesses from 180 and 240 microns.

LDK also provides wafering services to both monocrystalline and multicrystalline solar cell and module manufactures, which provide us their own ingots to be sliced. They charge a fee based on the number of wafers to be sliced.

The main technological process of multi-crystalline wafers contains: ingot and wire saw.

Strategic relationships with world class PV equipment manufacturers GT
Solar(USA) HCT (Switzerland), support LDK on equipment, process and
technology.Cooperate with Shanghai Jiaotong University formed “Shanghai
Jiaotong University-LDK Solar R&D Lab” engages in industry leading or LDK
R&D projects, endeavor together toreach state-level lab, supply technology
support for LDK to develop into a world class wafer manufacture.
Cooperate with Nanchang University formed “Nanchang University-LDK
Solar Research Center”, research in projects such as wafer purification,
crystallization improvement, and wire breakage reduction etc.

        1、Muticrystalline DSS capacity : 275kg/ingot (standard)
2、Ingot size: 690mm(L)× 690mm(W)×240mm(H)

Multi-crystalline wafer

Conductivity type:P
Dimension: 103×103±0.5mm ,125×125±0.5mm,150×150±0.5mm,156×156±0.5mm,210×210±0.5mm
Lifetime: ≥2μs
Oxygen concentration ≤ 1×1018atom/cm3
Carbon concentration ≤ 5×1016atom/cm3
Thickness:200μm± 20μm, 220μm± 20μm,240μm± 20μm
TTV:≤ 50 μm
BOW:≤ 30 μm
Saw mark:≤ 10 μm
Chips:L≤1mm, D≤1mm,Max. 2 places
Crack and pinhole: no cracks and pin holes visible with the naked eyes

Mono-crystalline wafer

Lifetime: ≥10μs
BOW:≤35 μm
Resistivity: 0.5—3,3—6,6—10Ω·cm
Oxygen concentration ≤ 1×1018atom/cm3
Carbon concentration ≤ 5×1016atom/cm3
Dimension: 125mmX125mm±0.5mm ,156mmX156mm±0.5mm
Thickness: 200μm ,220μm, 240μm(±20μm)
TTV:≤ 50 μm
Squareness Angle Variety : <0.6mm
Squareness Angle: 90°±0.25°
Crystal direction : ≤100≥

EnerDel Inc.

EnerDel, INC. – Lithium Power Systems

8740 Hague Rd
Indianapolis, IN
United States of America


EnerDel is developing Lithium-ion battery (LIB) solutions for automotive manufacturers that will improve the performance, fuel-efficiency and cost of HEVs. EnerDel’s new, highly reliable and safe batteries are designed to be lighter in weight, occupy less space, provide more power, more energy and have a longer life than the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries found in today’s HEVs.

EnerDel will manufacture its batteries in Indiana utilizing a unique, highly automated manufacturing process. EnerDel expects to succeed as being the first company to cost-competitively mass-produce a Li-ion battery in the United States. By serving as a local supplier of advanced performance batteries, EnerDel is able to contribute to the success of the automotive companies who manufacture hybrid electric vehicles in North America.

EnerDel’s lithium ion batteries (LIBs) offer advantages beyond the automotive sector. EnerDel’s HEV battery technology can also be used for specialty battery applications such as military and aerospace, asset tracking, medical and other select markets.


EnerDel currently develops lithium ion cells for a variety of applications. They also provide integrated systems consisting of cells, management controls, and mechanical packaging.

Li-ion Cells

EnerDel Cell A5 CellEnerDel has developed advanced lithium-ion battery technologies for use in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (“HEV”), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (“PHEV”) and Electric Vehicle (“EV”) applications. EnerDel is developing the core lithium titanate battery technology for HEVs and PHEVs under awards from the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (“USABC”). USABC is a consortium of three major U.S. auto manufacturers (Ford, General Motors and Chrysler) with funding provided by the Department of Energy. In addition, EnerDel has developed an EV lithium-ion battery designed to achieve the higher energy density required for EVs, such as for the Th!nk City EV.EnerDel believes that their batteries and technology offer significant competitive advantages because of their safety, power, energy and other performance characteristics. Additionally, their battery packs are designed to accommodate all of the complex electronic and design features of automotive applications.EnerDel’s technology stems from initial developments with Argonne National Laboratory, combined with industry know-how and expertise from the lithium-ion industry in Japan, as well as systems expertise from the automotive industry, including from Delphi Corporation. Controls Management

EnerDel can offer smart electronics to manage the following system functions:

  • Charge / Discharge
  • Thermal Management
  • Cell Balancing
  • State of Charge (SOC) / State of Health

For ease of integration software is also developed by EnerDel to allow for external monitoring of battery status.

Electronic Controls DiagramElectronic ControlsSystems Integration

Battery PackSystem Integration  Battery Pack

Product Engineering

  • Strong experience in battery product development:
    • R&D, Design, Build, Test, Validation
    • Automotive and non-automotive
    • High-voltage Power Systems
  • Manufacturing Engineering
    • Quality controls
    • Lean principles

Battery Pack Products

  • 12 Volt Battery Pack
    • 4A-hour “smart pack
    • Designed for transportation / industrial applications
    • Flexible architecture for varying capacities and cell characteristics
  • 24 Volt Battery Pack
    • Standard product for control systems, telecom, battery backup, and UPS applications
    • Flexible electronic architecture for ~20V to 40V systems
  • 80 Volt battery pack
    • 1% accurate SOC and real-time impedance reporting
    • Communication: I²C & UART
    • Certified to UN shipping requirements

GreatPoint Energy

GreatPoint Energy

GreatPoint Energy
222 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone: 617.401.8760
Fax: 617.849.5691

GreatPoint Energy
222 S. Riverside Plaza
Suite 2750
Chicago, IL 60606
Phone: 312.564.4485

GreatPoint Energy is a technology-driven natural resources company commercializing catalytic gasification to convert abundant coal, petroleum coke and biomass into low-cost natural gas (methane) while capturing and sequestering CO2.

Utilizing its proprietary conversion and carbon capture technology, GreatPoint Energy develops bluegas™, coal-derived natural gas. bluegas™ is 99.5 percent pure methane and can be transported throughout North America utilizing existing natural gas pipeline infrastructure, providing an attractive, cost-effective alternative to drilled and imported natural gas. Its environmental profile is as clean as natural gas; it consists mostly of hydrogen and therefore, has very low carbon emissions. Moreover, bluegas™ can be used in every application that natural gas is currently being used (i.e., power generation, residential and commercial heating, and production of chemicals).


GreatPoint Energy is following in the footsteps of the petroleum refining industry by implementing a more advanced and lower cost process for refining carbon-based feedstocks. In the early days of petroleum production, oil refineries – like today’s coal gasifiers – relied on intense heat (called thermal cracking) to break down heavy crude oil into light useable petroleum products. In the 1940’s however, scientists discovered that a catalyst could be used to minimize the amount of heat required. This lower cost and higher efficiency approach quickly replaced thermal cracking in oil refineries around the world.

GreatPoint Energy’s technology uses the same basic technique to “refine” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into clean burning methane (natural gas). This single stage process is called catalytic coal methanation and forms the basis of the GreatPoint Energy bluegas™ process.

By adding a catalyst to the coal gasification system, GreatPoint Energy is able to reduce the operating temperature in the gasifier, while directly promoting the reactions that yield methane, CH4. Under these mild “catalytic” conditions, less expensive reactor components are required, pipeline grade methane is produced, and very low cost carbon sources (such as lignites, sub-bituminous coals, tar sands, petroleum coke and petroleum resid) can be used as feedstocks.

In addition, GreatPoint Energy’s catalytic coal methanation process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems; reduces maintenance requirements; increases thermal efficiency; and eliminates the air separation plant (a system which alone accounts for 20 percent of the capital cost of most gasification systems).

Ausra, Inc.

Ausra, Inc.

Ausra, Inc.
2585 East Bayshore Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94303

phone: 650.424.9300
fax: 650.494.3893

General Information: info@ausra.comAbout
Ausra develops and deploys utility-scale solar technologies to serve global electricity needs in a dependable, market competitive, environmentally responsible manner.

Amid growing public demand for clean energy, Ausra offers solar thermal electric power stations that provide large-scale low-cost, reliable, renewable energy. Unlike competing approaches, Ausra’s technology is proven, easily manufactured and installed, and scalable to high volume.

Ausra’s zero-carbon power plants generate electricity at current market prices for fossil-fired power without the emissions caused by burning fuels. Solar concentrators boil water with focused sunlight, generating high-pressure steam that drives conventional turbine generators. Low-cost thermal energy storage systems now under development by Ausra will allow solar electric power to be generated on demand, day and night.

Electric utilities in the U.S. and worldwide are under growing pressure to expand their deliveries of clean, renewable power. The Ausra team brings together expertise in solar energy research, engineering, manufacturing, power project development and finance to address this need. The company designs, manufactures and deploys low-cost, large-scale, solar electric power stations, selling electric power at prices competitive with today’s fossil-fired generation.

Ausra’s core technology, the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) solar collector and steam generation system, was originally conceived in the early 1990s at Sydney University. It was first commercialized by Solar Heat and Power Pty Ltd. in 2004 in Australia and is now being refined and built at large scale by Ausra around the world.

CLFR technology has significant advantages in cost, scalability and emissions profile. Ausra develops large-scale power projects incorporating CLFR solar fields, and helps utilities generate clean energy for millions of customers.

Innovation in Action

  • Research and Development: Ausra’s core group of chemists, physicists and engineers are working on optics, coatings, materials and manufacturing processes to improve the performance and reduce the cost of solar collector systems, thermal energy storage systems and power plant cooling systems. Their ongoing refinements to Ausra’s technology will continue to reduce costs and extend Ausra’s leadership in these fields.
  • Engineering: Ausra’s engineering managers and engineers come from a variety of disciplines across the electric power industry. The team optimizes Ausra’s existing technologies for production, and brings new technologies from R&D into volume manufacturing. Ausra partners with leading consulting engineering firms to test and verify energy production and lifecycle performance of its plants.
  • Manufacturing: Ausra’s approach to solar plant production emphasizes manufacturing facilities located near power plants, low-cost commodity materials (steel, glass and concrete), and mass produced components. Ausra operates its own production facilities for the manufacture of its solar collectors to deliver the highest performance at lowest possible system costs.
  • Project Management: Ausra draws experts from many sectors of the energy industry to manage land permits, project finance and power purchase agreements. The team has a strong track record of success with multiple generations of technologies.

Solar Thermal Electric Power is Energy Independence and Security
We have a secure source of electric power with guaranteed stable prices, no emissions, and the ability to scale to meet all our needs. With a 20-year track record of over 99 percent availability, solar thermal electric power has proven to be a dependable source of electric power for America’s growing energy needs. Solar power is entirely domestically produced, is protected against fuel price and availability fluctuations, and is secure against future costs of carbon emissions.

Ausra’s innovations in collector design dramatically reduce the cost of solar thermal generation equipment and bring solar

power to prices directly competitive with fossil fuel power.

Using Ausra’s current solar technologies, all U.S. electric power, day and night, can be generated using a land area smaller than 92 by 92 miles.

Ausra’s business will benefit local economies by bringing “green collar” manufacturing and operating jobs to rural communities. By delivering clean, reliable energy at market-competitive prices, Ausra will help meet America’s growing needs for climate-friendly power while maintaining consumer-friendly prices.